Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) is an economic arthropod-borne virus distributed in Africa, Asia, and Australia. Based on the sequence of the gene encoding the surface glycoprotein G, the viral antigenic determinant, BEFV has been phylogenetically classified into three clusters, including Australia, East Asia, and the Middle East. Here, we provide evidence for antigenic variations among the BEFV isolates in Iran during the period of 2012 to 2013 and also the exotic YHL strain, which are all classified into the East Asian cluster of the virus. For this propose, the entire length of the G gene of the viruses were sequenced and phylogenetically compared. The corresponding antigenic sites (G1–G4) were analyzed and antigenic relatedness among these viruses was measured. The two Iranian viruses, which displayed substitutions at residues E503K in the site G1 and E461K in the predicted site G4, were partially neutralized by each other’s antisera (R value = 63.23%); however, these two viruses exhibited much lower cross-neutralization that measured by R value as 28.28% and 22.82%, respectively. The crucial substitution at amino acid R218K in the site G3a is believed to be the foremost cause of these declines. The data emphasize the frequent evolution of BEFV in different time periods and geographic regions, in which the new variants can emerge and likely escape from the pre-existing immunities. Thus, continuous monitoring of the circulating viruses is necessary for understanding the viral evolution and evaluation of protective immunity induced by the heterologous viruses.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Constable P et al (2017) Veterinary medicine: a textbook of the diseases of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and horses. WB Saunders Company LTD, London
Walker PJ, Klement E (2015) Epidemiology and control of bovine ephemeral fever. Vet Res 46(1):124. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13567-015-0262-4
Walker PJ et al (1991) Proteins of bovine ephemeral fever virus. J Gen Virol 72(1):67–74. https://doi.org/10.1099/0022-1317-72-1-67
McWilliam SM et al (1997) Genome organization and transcription strategy in the complex GNS-L intergenic region of bovine ephemeral fever rhabdovirus. J Gen Virol 78(6):1309–1317. https://doi.org/10.1099/0022-1317-78-6-1309
Cybinski D et al (1990) Mapping of antigenic sites on the bovine ephemeral fever virus glycoprotein using monoclonal antibodies. J Gen Virol 71(9):2065–2072. https://doi.org/10.1099/0022-1317-71-9-2065
Uren M et al (1994) Effective vaccination of cattle using the virion G protein of bovine ephemeral fever virus as an antigen. Vaccine 12(9):845–852. https://doi.org/10.1016/0264-410X(94)90295-X
Kongsuwan K et al (1998) Location of neutralizing epitopes on the G protein of bovine ephemeral fever rhabdovirus. J Gen Virol 79(11):2573–2581. https://doi.org/10.1099/0022-1317-79-11-2573
Trinidad L et al (2014) Evolution of bovine ephemeral fever virus in the Australian episystem. J Virol 88(3):1525–1535. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02797-13
Snowdon W (1970) Bovine ephemeral fever: the reaction of cattle to different strains of ephemeral fever virus and the antigenic comparison of two strains of virus. Aust Vet J 46(6):258–266. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.1970.tb15773.x
Tian F et al (1987) A comparison of a Chinese and an Australian strain of bovine ephemeral fever virus. Aust Vet J 64(5):159. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.1987.tb09670.x
Cybinski D, Davis S, Zakrzewski H (1992) Antigenic variation of the bovine ephemeral fever virus glycoprotein. Adv Virol 124(3):211–224. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01309803
Kato T et al (2009) Phylogenetic relationships of the G gene sequence of bovine ephemeral fever virus isolated in Japan, Taiwan and Australia. Vet Microbiol 137(3):217–223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.01.021
Ting L-J et al (2014) Relationships of bovine ephemeral fever epizootics to population immunity and virus variation. Vet Microbiol 173(3–4):241–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.07.021
Wang F-I, Hsu A, Huang K (2001) Bovine ephemeral fever in Taiwan. J Vet Diagn Invest 13(6):462–467. https://doi.org/10.1177/104063870101300602
Zheng F, Qiu C (2012) Phylogenetic relationships of the glycoprotein gene of bovine ephemeral fever virus isolated from mainland China, Taiwan, Japan, Turkey, Israel and Australia. Virol J 9(1):268. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-9-268
Aziz-Boaron O et al (2012) Circulation of bovine ephemeral fever in the Middle East—strong evidence for transmission by winds and animal transport. Vet Microbiol 158(3):300–307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.03.003
Oğuzoğlu T et al (2015) A report on bovine ephemeral fever virus in Turkey: antigenic variations of different strains of EFV in the 1985 and 2012 outbreaks using partial glycoprotein gene sequences. Transbound Emerg Dis 62(5):e66–e70. https://doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12187
Bakhshesh M, Abdollahi D (2015) Bovine ephemeral fever in Iran: diagnosis, isolation and molecular characterization. J Arthropod Borne Dis 9(2):195
Hsieh Y-C et al (2006) DNA sequence analysis of glycoprotein G gene of bovine ephemeral fever virus and development of a double oil emulsion vaccine against bovine ephemeral fever. J Vet Med Sci 68(6):543–548. https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.68.543
Inaba Y et al (1968) Bovine epizootic fever. Jpn J Microbiol 12(4):457–469. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1348-0421.1968.tb00419.x
Thompson JD, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ (1994) CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22(22):4673–4680. https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/22.22.4673
Tamura K et al (2011) MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol 28(10):2731–2739. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msr121
Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4(4):406–425. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a040454
Felsenstein J (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39(4):783–791. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.1985.tb00420.x
Reed LJ, Muench H (1938) A simple method of estimating fifty percent endponts. Am J Epidemiol 27(3):493–497. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a118408
Archetti I, Horsfall FL (1950) Persistent antigenic variation of influenza A viruses after incomplete neutralization in ovo with heterologous immune serum. J Exp Med 92(5):441–462. https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.92.5.441
Ting L-J et al (2016) Invasion of exotic bovine ephemeral fever virus into Taiwan in 2013–2014. Vet Microbiol 182:15–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.10.025
Walker PJ (2005) Bovine ephemeral fever in Australia and the World. In: Fu ZF (ed) The world of rhabdoviruses. Current topics in microbiology and immunology, vol 292. Springer, Berlin, pp 57–80. https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-27485-5_4
Hirashima Y et al (2015) Resurgence of bovine ephemeral fever in mainland Japan in, 2015 after a 23-year absence. J Vet Med Sci 2017:16–0345. https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.16-0345
The authors thank Razi Vaccine and Serum Institute for financial support of this work.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Edited by Zhen F. Fu.
About this article
Cite this article
Almasi, S., Bakhshesh, M. Antigenic variation of bovine ephemeral fever viruses isolated in Iran, 2012–2013. Virus Genes 55, 654–659 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11262-019-01688-6
- Genetic variation