Virus Genes

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Co-infection with different serotypes of FMDV in vaccinated cattle in Southern Egypt

  • Amira Adel Al-Hosary
  • Ahmed KandeilEmail author
  • Ahmed Nageh El-Taweel
  • Ann Nordengrahn
  • Malik Merza
  • Rebecca Badra
  • Ghazi KayaliEmail author
  • Mohamed A. AliEmail author


During 2015–2016 period, an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was observed in cattle in four governorates of the upper of Egypt. The infection was extended to the vaccinated cattle. A total of 54 mouth swabs and serum samples were collected from vaccinated cattle for serological and virological investigation. The typical clinical signs of FMDV infection were observed in all cattle under investigation. All samples were positive for FMDV using molecular methods, while the serological method showed 85% positive of tested samples. Typing of FMDV-positive samples using serotype-specific primers showed that 51.8% of samples were serotype O, 9.2% were serotype A, and 18.5% were SAT 2. Surprisingly, co-infections of serotypes A/SAT 2 (12.9%) and O/SAT 2 (7.4%) were also detected. By geographical location, the 3 serotypes A, O, and SAT2 were detected in all four governorates. The phylogenetic assessment of the detected viruses showed that two distinct groups of FMDV serotype O of East Africa-3 (EA-3) topotype were most closely related to circulating viruses in Sudan, as well as FMDV strains belonging to the topotype VII of serotype SAT 2. The detected SAT 2 strains clustered in separate clades in topotype VII, indicating new incursions. The VP1 signatures and protein sequences of some characterized viruses were analyzed. Multiple mutations were detected in VP1. Therefore, to enhance the control of FMD in Egypt, we recommend establishing an active surveillance system to characterize newly emerging virus strains/serotypes and subsequently updating vaccine strains.


Foot-and-mouth disease virus Co-infection Vaccination Egypt 



This work was funded by National Research Centre (NRC) and Assiut University, Egypt.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 15 KB)
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Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 26 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Animal Medicine (Infectious Diseases), Faculty of Veterinary MedicineAssiut UniversityAssiutEgypt
  2. 2.Center of Scientific Excellence for Influenza Viruses, Water Pollution Research Department, Environmental Research DivisionNational Research Centre (NRC), EgyptGizaEgypt
  3. 3.Boehringer Ingelheim SvanovaUppsalaSweden
  4. 4.Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental SciencesUniversity of Texas Health Sciences CenterHoustonUSA
  5. 5.Human LinkHazmiehLebanon

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