Linear epitope binding antibodies against GII.3 Norovirus exhibit no histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) blocking effects
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Noroviruses are leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In our previous study, we established an in vitro histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) binding blockade assay against GII.3 Norovirus virus like particles (VLPs) with trypsin digestion. In this study, we characterized the blocking antibody binding site and epitope type (linear or conformational) by using hyperimmune sera produced against different antigens. VP1 from Jingzhou402 (GII.3, JZ402) strain was expressed by using pGEX-6p-1 expression vector and the insoluble proteins were purified for immunization in rabbit. Previously characterized chimeric VP1-assembled VLPs (GII.4-VP1/GII.3-P2) were used to immunize guinea pig. Peptides reactive with hyperimmune serum against VLPs derived from the VP1 of JZ402 strain were conjugated with BSA and used to immunize rabbits. Hyperimmune sera against above antigens and JZ402 and JZ403 strain-derived VLPs were used to compare their HBGAs blocking effects. Rabbit anti-GST-VP1 and BSA-peptide conjugated hyperimmune sera demonstrated no blocking effects against the binding of GII.3 and GII.4 NoV VLPs to salivary HBGAs. Guinea pig anti-GII.4-VP1/GII.3-P2 hyperimmune serum blocked the binding of trypsin cleaved GII.3 VLPs to salivary HBGAs with no or very weak blocking effects against the binding of GII.4 VLPs to salivary HBGAs. Our data indicated that HBGAs blocking antibodies primarily bound the P2 domain of GII.3 NoV VP1 and their binding epitopes were most probably conformation-dependent.
KeywordsNoroviruses Major capsid protein Hyperimmune serum Epitopes Blocking antibody
We thank Qiong Fan, Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo and Xiaoran Li, Department of Pathology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center for editing our manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Animal experiments were performed in accordance with the guidelines of Chinese Council on Animal Care. The research protocol was approved by Animal Care and Use Committee of the Wuhan Institute of Biological Products (WIBP).