Grapevine virus T is relatively widespread in Slovakia and Czech Republic and genetically diverse
A recently described putative foveavirus, grapevine virus T (GVT), was detected in a Slovak grapevine accession (SK704) using high-throughput sequencing, prompting further studies. Full-length genome sequence of isolate GVT-SK704 was determined. Analyses revealed 86.1% nucleotide identity with the Italian GVT isolate, currently the only available nearly complete sequence of GVT in GenBank. A virus-specific RT-PCR assay was developed, which enabled a survey of GVT incidence in grapevine samples from Slovakia and Czech Republic. Unexpectedly, GVT was present in ~ 30% of tested samples. Analysis of complete CP gene sequences of 20 Slovak and Czech GVT isolates detected in the survey revealed relatively high intra-species variability (up to 11.2% nucleotide divergence), suggesting multiple introductions from different sources, possibly over an extended period of time.
KeywordsGVT Foveavirus Grapevine High-throughput sequencing Diversity
We are grateful to Dr. P. Kominek for providing the grapevine samples from the Czech Republic.
MG, AO and TW conceived the study. MG, LP, NS, ABRG, AO, TW and SS participated in the conduct of the study, HTS assays and screening of the grapevine plants. KŠ performed the deep sequencing assays, KŠ, ABRG, AO, MG and SS analyzed the sequence data. MG and SS drafted and reviewed the manuscript. All authors critically revised and approved the manuscript.
This work was supported by Grants VEGA 2/0036/16 from the Scientific Grant Agency of the Ministry of Education and Slovak Academy of Sciences and APVV-15-0232 from the Slovak Research and Development Agency. KŠ was supported by the Grant ITMS313021D075 from the Research & Development Operational Program funded by the ERDF. SS acknowledges partial support from Special Research Initiative Grant—Mississippi Agriculture and Forest Experiment Station (MAFES), Mississippi State University. The research was conducted within the framework of COST Action FA1407 (DIVAS) supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- 1.Saldarelli P, Giampetruzzi A, Maree HJ, Al Rwahnih M (2017) High-throughput sequencing: advantages beyond virus identification. In: Meng B, Martelli G, Golino D, Fuchs M (eds) Grapevine viruses: molecular biology, diagnostics and management. Springer, Cham, pp 625–642. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57706-7_30 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Glasa M, Predajňa L, Šoltys K, Sihelská N, Nagyová A, Wetzel T, Sabanadzovic S (2017) Analysis of Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus in Slovakia reveals differences in intra-host population diversity and naturally occurring recombination events. Plant Pathol J 33:34–42CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 14.Bouyahia H, Boscia D, Savino V, La Notte P, Pirolo C, Castellano MA, Minafra A, Martelli GP (2005) Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus is linked with grapevine vein necrosis. Vitis 44:133–137Google Scholar
- 16.Massart S, Candresse T, Gil J, Lacomme C, Predajňa L, Ravnikar M, Reynard JS, Rumbou A, Saldarelli P, Škorić D, Vainio EJ, Valkonen JPT, Vanderschuren H, Varveri C, Wetzel T (2017) A framework for the evaluation of biosecurity, commercial, regulatory, and scientific impacts of plant viruses and viroids identified by NGS technologies. Front Microbiol 8:45. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00045 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 18.Glasa M, Predajňa L (2012) Partial sequence analysis of a grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 isolate from Slovakia. J Plant Pathol 94:675–679Google Scholar