Virus Genes

, Volume 54, Issue 3, pp 376–384 | Cite as

Evolutionary analysis of Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) indicates an ancient origin for its current strains and a worldwide dispersion

  • Giuliana Loreto Saraiva
  • Pedro Marcus Pereira VidigalEmail author
  • Juliana Lopes Rangel Fietto
  • Gustavo Costa Bressan
  • Abelardo Silva Júnior
  • Márcia Rogéria de Almeida


Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) is an emerging virus that was identified in the United States in 2016. Since its first identification, PCV3 has been identified in Brazil, China, United States, Poland, and Republic of Korea. In this study, we used molecular phylogenetic analysis of available sequences to address questions surrounding the emergence of PCV3 in porcine world industry. Our data indicate that PCV3 did not emerge through recombination events among currently known circoviruses and that its speciation is not a recent evolutionary event. The most common recent ancestor analysis suggests that PCV3 lineages have emerged over the past 50 years. PCV3 is not genetically closely related with other Porcine circovirus and it has been evolving undetected for some time in swine and probably in bovine population. We also found groups of genetically related isolates of PCV3 originated from different countries that may be associated with dispersal routes, suggesting that PCV3 has already been circulating in pig-producing countries for some time before its first detection.


PCV3 Porcine circovirus Phylogeny Recombination Dispersal route 



The authors would like to thank Dr. Srinand Sreevatsan (Professor of College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University) for his critical reading of the manuscript and comments. We are grateful to the Núcleo de Análises de Biomoléculas (NuBioMol) of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa for providing the facilities for the data analysis. The authors also acknowledge the financial support provided by the following Brazilian agencies: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (Fapemig), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (Finep), and Sistema Nacional de Laboratórios em Nanotecnologias (SisNANO)/Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Informação (MCTI).

Author contributions

All authors contributed to this work and agreed to its publication.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical statement

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

11262_2018_1545_MOESM1_ESM.doc (191 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 191 kb)
11262_2018_1545_MOESM2_ESM.doc (1013 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 1013 kb)
11262_2018_1545_MOESM3_ESM.doc (84 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOC 84 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuliana Loreto Saraiva
    • 1
  • Pedro Marcus Pereira Vidigal
    • 2
    Email author
  • Juliana Lopes Rangel Fietto
    • 1
  • Gustavo Costa Bressan
    • 1
  • Abelardo Silva Júnior
    • 3
  • Márcia Rogéria de Almeida
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratório de Infectologia Molecular AnimalInstituto de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuária da Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV)ViçosaBrazil
  2. 2.Núcleo de Análise de Biomoléculas (NuBioMol), Centro de Ciências Biológicas (CCB)Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV)ViçosaBrazil
  3. 3.Laboratório de Virologia Animal e Imunobiológicos, Departamento de Veterinária daUniversidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV)ViçosaBrazil

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