Virus Genes

, Volume 54, Issue 2, pp 272–279 | Cite as

An Iranian genomic sequence of Beet mosaic virus provides insights into diversity and evolution of the world population

  • Musa Mohammadi
  • Adrian J. Gibbs
  • Ahmad HosseiniEmail author
  • Samin Hosseini


Beet mosaic virus (BtMV), the only Potyvirus known to infect sugar beet, occurs worldwide in beet crops. The full genome sequencing of a BtMV isolate from Iran (Ir-VRU), enabled us to better understand the evolutionary history of this virus. Selection analysis suggested that BtMV evolution is mainly under negative selection but its strength varies in different proteins with the multifunctional proteins under strongest selection. Recombination has played a major role in the evolution of the BtMVs; only the Ir-VRU and USA isolates show no evidence of recombination. The ML phylogenies of BtMVs from coat protein and full sequences were completely congruent. The primary divergence of the BtMV phylogeny is into USA and Eurasian lineages, and the latter then divides to form a cluster only found in Iran, and a sister cluster that includes all the European and Chinese isolates. A simple patristic dating method estimated that the primary divergence of the BtMV population was only 360 (range 260–490) years ago, suggesting an emergence during the development of sugar beet as a crop over the past three centuries rather than with the use of leaf beet as a vegetable for at least 2000 years.


Beet mosaic virus Evolution Dating Recombination Seed transmission 



The authors would like to thank to Tahereh Ramazani for kindly collecting beet samples.

Author contributions

AH and SH prepared and provided laboratory support, MM amplified and sequenced the IR-VRU isolate, carried out the analyses, and wrote the draft manuscript, AG designed the dating method, interpreted the results, and edited the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

11262_2018_1533_MOESM1_ESM.docx (19 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 18 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant ProtectionVali-e-Asr University of RafsanjanRafsanjanIran
  2. 2.Emeritus FacultyAustralian National UniversityCanberraAustralia

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