Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Genetic and molecular characterization of a novel reassortant H2N8 subtype avian influenza virus isolated from a domestic duck in Zhejiang Province in China


The circulation of the H2 subtype influenza viruses in domestic animals increases the risk of human exposure to these viruses. An H2N8 avian influenza virus (AIV) was isolated from a domestic duck during AIV surveillance of poultry in live poultry markets (LPMs) in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China, in 2013. The phylogenetic trees suggested that this strain is a novel reassortant virus derived from multiple AIV subtypes from aquatic birds and poultry in Eastern Asia. Although this reassortant strain exhibited low pathogenicity in mice, it was able to replicate in the lungs of the mice without prior adaptation. Continued surveillance of domestic ducks in LPMs is required for early detection of AIV outbreaks in poultry and humans.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1


  1. 1.

    J.R. Schafer, Y. Kawaoka, W.J. Bean, J. Suss, D. Senne, R.G. Webster, Virology 194, 781–788 (1993)

  2. 2.

    G.J. Nabel, C.J. Wei, J.E. Ledgerwood, Nature 471, 157–158 (2011)

  3. 3.

    N. Kishida, Y. Sakoda, M. Shiromoto, G.R. Bai, N. Isoda, A. Takada, G. Laver, H. Kida, Virus Genes 37, 16–21 (2008)

  4. 4.

    N.V. Makarova, N.V. Kaverin, S. Krauss, D. Senne, R.G. Webster, J. Gen. Virol. 80(Pt 12), 3167–3171 (1999)

  5. 5.

    J.S. Hall, G.T. Hallgrimsson, K. Suwannanarn, S. Sreevatsen, H.S. Ip, E. Magnusdottir, J.L. TeSlaa, S.W. Nashold, R.J. Dusek, Infect Genet. Evol. 28, 130–136 (2014)

  6. 6.

    M.J. Ma, X.X. Yang, Y.H. Qian, S.Y. Zhao, S. Hua, T.C. Wang, S.H. Chen, G.Y. Ma, X.Y. Sang, L.N. Liu, A.P. Wu, T.J. Jiang, Y.W. Gao, G.C. Gray, T. Zhao, X. Ling, J.L. Wang, B. Lu, J. Qian, W.C. Cao, Sci. Rep. 4, 7588 (2014)

  7. 7.

    X.D. Li, S.M. Zou, Y. Zhang, T. Bai, R.B. Gao, X. Zhang, J. Wu, Y.L. Shu, Biomed. Environ. Sci. 27, 240–249 (2014)

  8. 8.

    M.L. Killian, Y. Zhang, B. Panigrahy, D. Trampel, K.J. Yoon, Avian Dis. 55, 611–619 (2011)

  9. 9.

    X. Peng, H. Wu, C. Jin, H. Yao, X. Lu, L. Cheng, N. Wu, Virus Genes 48, 391–396 (2014)

  10. 10.

    J.C. Jones, T. Baranovich, B.M. Marathe, A.F. Danner, J.P. Seiler, J. Franks, E.A. Govorkova, S. Krauss, R.G. Webster, J. Virol. 88, 1175–1188 (2014)

  11. 11.

    J.A. Richt, B. Rockx, W. Ma, F. Feldmann, D. Safronetz, A. Marzi, D. Kobasa, J.E. Strong, L. Kercher, D. Long, D. Gardner, D. Brining, H. Feldmann, PLoS One 7, e39990 (2012)

  12. 12.

    H.B. Wu, C.T. Guo, R.F. Lu, L.H. Xu, E.K. Wo, J.B. You, Y.T. Wang, Q.G. Wang, N.P. Wu, Virus Genes 44, 441–449 (2012)

  13. 13.

    E. Hoffmann, J. Stech, Y. Guan, R.G. Webster, D.R. Perez, Arch. Virol. 146, 2275–2289 (2001)

  14. 14.

    K. Tamura, D. Peterson, N. Peterson, G. Stecher, M. Nei, S. Kumar, Mol. Biol. Evol. 28, 2731–2739 (2011)

  15. 15.

    W. Hai-bo, G. Chao-tan, L. Ru-feng, X. Li-hua, W. En-kang, Y. Jin-biao, W. Yi-ting, W. Qiao-gang, W. Nan-ping, Arch. Virol. 157, 1131–1136 (2012)

  16. 16.

    L. Reed, H. Muench, Am. J. Hyg. 27, 493–497 (1938)

  17. 17.

    R.J. Connor, Y. Kawaoka, R.G. Webster, J.C. Paulson, Virology 205, 17–23 (1994)

  18. 18.

    M. Matrosovich, A. Tuzikov, N. Bovin, A. Gambaryan, A. Klimov, M.R. Castrucci, I. Donatelli, Y. Kawaoka, J. Virol. 74, 8502–8512 (2000)

  19. 19.

    Y. Zhang, J. Zhu, Y. Li, K.C. Bradley, J. Cao, H. Chen, M. Jin, H. Zhou, PLoS One 8, e61397 (2013)

  20. 20.

    M. Iqbal, S.C. Essen, H. Xiao, S.M. Brookes, I.H. Brown, J.W. McCauley, Virology 433, 282–295 (2012)

  21. 21.

    K.A. Schat, J. Bingham, J.M. Butler, L.M. Chen, S. Lowther, T.M. Crowley, R.J. Moore, R.O. Donis, J.W. Lowenthal, PLoS One 7, e30960 (2012)

  22. 22.

    W. Song, P. Wang, B.W. Mok, S.Y. Lau, X. Huang, W.L. Wu, M. Zheng, X. Wen, S. Yang, Y. Chen, L. Li, K.Y. Yuen, H. Chen, Nat. Commun. 5, 5509 (2014)

  23. 23.

    K.A. Bussey, T.L. Bousse, E.A. Desmet, B. Kim, T. Takimoto, J. Virol. 84, 4395–4406 (2010)

  24. 24.

    V. Czudai-Matwich, A. Otte, M. Matrosovich, G. Gabriel, H.D. Klenk, J. Virol. 88, 8735–8742 (2014)

  25. 25.

    M.S. Song, P.N. Pascua, J.H. Lee, Y.H. Baek, O.J. Lee, C.J. Kim, H. Kim, R.J. Webby, R.G. Webster, Y.K. Choi, J. Virol. 83, 12325–12335 (2009)

  26. 26.

    G. Deng, D. Tan, J. Shi, P. Cui, Y. Jiang, L. Liu, G. Tian, Y. Kawaoka, C. Li, H. Chen, J. Virol. 87, 9452–9462 (2013)

  27. 27.

    K. Huang, H. Zhu, X. Fan, J. Wang, C.L. Cheung, L. Duan, W. Hong, Y. Liu, L. Li, D.K. Smith, H. Chen, R.G. Webster, R.J. Webby, M. Peiris, Y. Guan, J. Virol. 86, 6075–6083 (2012)

  28. 28.

    Y. Chen, W. Liang, S. Yang, N. Wu, H. Gao, J. Sheng, H. Yao, J. Wo, Q. Fang, D. Cui, Y. Li, X. Yao, Y. Zhang, H. Wu, S. Zheng, H. Diao, S. Xia, K.H. Chan, H.W. Tsoi, J.L. Teng, W. Song, P. Wang, S.Y. Lau, M. Zheng, J.F. Chan, K.K. To, H. Chen, L. Li, K.Y. Yuen, Lancet 381, 1916–1925 (2013)

  29. 29.

    T.T. Lam, J. Wang, Y. Shen, B. Zhou, L. Duan, C.L. Cheung, C. Ma, S.J. Lycett, C.Y. Leung, X. Chen, L. Li, W. Hong, Y. Chai, L. Zhou, H. Liang, Z. Ou, Y. Liu, A. Farooqui, D.J. Kelvin, L.L. Poon, D.K. Smith, O.G. Pybus, G.M. Leung, Y. Shu, R.G. Webster, R.J. Webby, J.S. Peiris, A. Rambaut, H. Zhu, Y. Guan, Nature 502, 241–244 (2013)

Download references


This study was funded by Grants from the National Science Foundation of the People’s Republic of China (81502852), Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Y15H190006), and the Independent Task of State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases (Nos. 2015ZZ05 and 2016ZZ03).

Author information

Correspondence to Nanping Wu.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they had no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The animal studies were approved by the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University (No. 2015-015).

Additional information

Haibo Wu and Xiuming Peng have contributed equally to this work.

Edited by William Dundon.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOC 33 kb)

Figure S1.

Phylogenetic trees based on the gene sequences of PB2 (positions 1–2280), PB1 (positions 1–2274), PA (positions 1–2151), NP (positions 1–1490), M (positions 1–924), and NS (positions 1–838) of the novel reassortant H2N8 AIV and reference AIV strains. The tree was created using the maximum likelihood method and bootstrapped with 1000 replicates by the MEGA software version 6.0. The H2N8 virus isolated in this study is indicated by a triangle. The scale bar represents the unit of distance between sequence pairs. (DOC 1090 kb)

Figure S2.

Comparison of deduced HA amino acid sequences of the H2 AIV isolated in this study and reference influenza virus strains using the MegAlign program. Identical amino acids are shown as dots. The blue box represents the HA sequence at the cleavage site, black boxes represent potential N-linked glycosylation sites, and red/yellow boxes indicate residues involved in the receptor-binding site. (DOC 1000 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wu, H., Peng, X., Peng, X. et al. Genetic and molecular characterization of a novel reassortant H2N8 subtype avian influenza virus isolated from a domestic duck in Zhejiang Province in China. Virus Genes 52, 863–866 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11262-016-1368-0

Download citation


  • Avian influenza virus
  • H2N8
  • Genetic analysis
  • Virus reassortment
  • Domestic ducks