The circulation of the H2 subtype influenza viruses in domestic animals increases the risk of human exposure to these viruses. An H2N8 avian influenza virus (AIV) was isolated from a domestic duck during AIV surveillance of poultry in live poultry markets (LPMs) in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China, in 2013. The phylogenetic trees suggested that this strain is a novel reassortant virus derived from multiple AIV subtypes from aquatic birds and poultry in Eastern Asia. Although this reassortant strain exhibited low pathogenicity in mice, it was able to replicate in the lungs of the mice without prior adaptation. Continued surveillance of domestic ducks in LPMs is required for early detection of AIV outbreaks in poultry and humans.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
J.R. Schafer, Y. Kawaoka, W.J. Bean, J. Suss, D. Senne, R.G. Webster, Virology 194, 781–788 (1993)
G.J. Nabel, C.J. Wei, J.E. Ledgerwood, Nature 471, 157–158 (2011)
N. Kishida, Y. Sakoda, M. Shiromoto, G.R. Bai, N. Isoda, A. Takada, G. Laver, H. Kida, Virus Genes 37, 16–21 (2008)
N.V. Makarova, N.V. Kaverin, S. Krauss, D. Senne, R.G. Webster, J. Gen. Virol. 80(Pt 12), 3167–3171 (1999)
J.S. Hall, G.T. Hallgrimsson, K. Suwannanarn, S. Sreevatsen, H.S. Ip, E. Magnusdottir, J.L. TeSlaa, S.W. Nashold, R.J. Dusek, Infect Genet. Evol. 28, 130–136 (2014)
M.J. Ma, X.X. Yang, Y.H. Qian, S.Y. Zhao, S. Hua, T.C. Wang, S.H. Chen, G.Y. Ma, X.Y. Sang, L.N. Liu, A.P. Wu, T.J. Jiang, Y.W. Gao, G.C. Gray, T. Zhao, X. Ling, J.L. Wang, B. Lu, J. Qian, W.C. Cao, Sci. Rep. 4, 7588 (2014)
X.D. Li, S.M. Zou, Y. Zhang, T. Bai, R.B. Gao, X. Zhang, J. Wu, Y.L. Shu, Biomed. Environ. Sci. 27, 240–249 (2014)
M.L. Killian, Y. Zhang, B. Panigrahy, D. Trampel, K.J. Yoon, Avian Dis. 55, 611–619 (2011)
X. Peng, H. Wu, C. Jin, H. Yao, X. Lu, L. Cheng, N. Wu, Virus Genes 48, 391–396 (2014)
J.C. Jones, T. Baranovich, B.M. Marathe, A.F. Danner, J.P. Seiler, J. Franks, E.A. Govorkova, S. Krauss, R.G. Webster, J. Virol. 88, 1175–1188 (2014)
J.A. Richt, B. Rockx, W. Ma, F. Feldmann, D. Safronetz, A. Marzi, D. Kobasa, J.E. Strong, L. Kercher, D. Long, D. Gardner, D. Brining, H. Feldmann, PLoS One 7, e39990 (2012)
H.B. Wu, C.T. Guo, R.F. Lu, L.H. Xu, E.K. Wo, J.B. You, Y.T. Wang, Q.G. Wang, N.P. Wu, Virus Genes 44, 441–449 (2012)
E. Hoffmann, J. Stech, Y. Guan, R.G. Webster, D.R. Perez, Arch. Virol. 146, 2275–2289 (2001)
K. Tamura, D. Peterson, N. Peterson, G. Stecher, M. Nei, S. Kumar, Mol. Biol. Evol. 28, 2731–2739 (2011)
W. Hai-bo, G. Chao-tan, L. Ru-feng, X. Li-hua, W. En-kang, Y. Jin-biao, W. Yi-ting, W. Qiao-gang, W. Nan-ping, Arch. Virol. 157, 1131–1136 (2012)
L. Reed, H. Muench, Am. J. Hyg. 27, 493–497 (1938)
R.J. Connor, Y. Kawaoka, R.G. Webster, J.C. Paulson, Virology 205, 17–23 (1994)
M. Matrosovich, A. Tuzikov, N. Bovin, A. Gambaryan, A. Klimov, M.R. Castrucci, I. Donatelli, Y. Kawaoka, J. Virol. 74, 8502–8512 (2000)
Y. Zhang, J. Zhu, Y. Li, K.C. Bradley, J. Cao, H. Chen, M. Jin, H. Zhou, PLoS One 8, e61397 (2013)
M. Iqbal, S.C. Essen, H. Xiao, S.M. Brookes, I.H. Brown, J.W. McCauley, Virology 433, 282–295 (2012)
K.A. Schat, J. Bingham, J.M. Butler, L.M. Chen, S. Lowther, T.M. Crowley, R.J. Moore, R.O. Donis, J.W. Lowenthal, PLoS One 7, e30960 (2012)
W. Song, P. Wang, B.W. Mok, S.Y. Lau, X. Huang, W.L. Wu, M. Zheng, X. Wen, S. Yang, Y. Chen, L. Li, K.Y. Yuen, H. Chen, Nat. Commun. 5, 5509 (2014)
K.A. Bussey, T.L. Bousse, E.A. Desmet, B. Kim, T. Takimoto, J. Virol. 84, 4395–4406 (2010)
V. Czudai-Matwich, A. Otte, M. Matrosovich, G. Gabriel, H.D. Klenk, J. Virol. 88, 8735–8742 (2014)
M.S. Song, P.N. Pascua, J.H. Lee, Y.H. Baek, O.J. Lee, C.J. Kim, H. Kim, R.J. Webby, R.G. Webster, Y.K. Choi, J. Virol. 83, 12325–12335 (2009)
G. Deng, D. Tan, J. Shi, P. Cui, Y. Jiang, L. Liu, G. Tian, Y. Kawaoka, C. Li, H. Chen, J. Virol. 87, 9452–9462 (2013)
K. Huang, H. Zhu, X. Fan, J. Wang, C.L. Cheung, L. Duan, W. Hong, Y. Liu, L. Li, D.K. Smith, H. Chen, R.G. Webster, R.J. Webby, M. Peiris, Y. Guan, J. Virol. 86, 6075–6083 (2012)
Y. Chen, W. Liang, S. Yang, N. Wu, H. Gao, J. Sheng, H. Yao, J. Wo, Q. Fang, D. Cui, Y. Li, X. Yao, Y. Zhang, H. Wu, S. Zheng, H. Diao, S. Xia, K.H. Chan, H.W. Tsoi, J.L. Teng, W. Song, P. Wang, S.Y. Lau, M. Zheng, J.F. Chan, K.K. To, H. Chen, L. Li, K.Y. Yuen, Lancet 381, 1916–1925 (2013)
T.T. Lam, J. Wang, Y. Shen, B. Zhou, L. Duan, C.L. Cheung, C. Ma, S.J. Lycett, C.Y. Leung, X. Chen, L. Li, W. Hong, Y. Chai, L. Zhou, H. Liang, Z. Ou, Y. Liu, A. Farooqui, D.J. Kelvin, L.L. Poon, D.K. Smith, O.G. Pybus, G.M. Leung, Y. Shu, R.G. Webster, R.J. Webby, J.S. Peiris, A. Rambaut, H. Zhu, Y. Guan, Nature 502, 241–244 (2013)
This study was funded by Grants from the National Science Foundation of the People’s Republic of China (81502852), Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Y15H190006), and the Independent Task of State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases (Nos. 2015ZZ05 and 2016ZZ03).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they had no conflict of interest.
The animal studies were approved by the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University (No. 2015-015).
Haibo Wu and Xiuming Peng have contributed equally to this work.
Edited by William Dundon.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
Phylogenetic trees based on the gene sequences of PB2 (positions 1–2280), PB1 (positions 1–2274), PA (positions 1–2151), NP (positions 1–1490), M (positions 1–924), and NS (positions 1–838) of the novel reassortant H2N8 AIV and reference AIV strains. The tree was created using the maximum likelihood method and bootstrapped with 1000 replicates by the MEGA software version 6.0. The H2N8 virus isolated in this study is indicated by a triangle. The scale bar represents the unit of distance between sequence pairs. (DOC 1090 kb)
Comparison of deduced HA amino acid sequences of the H2 AIV isolated in this study and reference influenza virus strains using the MegAlign program. Identical amino acids are shown as dots. The blue box represents the HA sequence at the cleavage site, black boxes represent potential N-linked glycosylation sites, and red/yellow boxes indicate residues involved in the receptor-binding site. (DOC 1000 kb)
About this article
Cite this article
Wu, H., Peng, X., Peng, X. et al. Genetic and molecular characterization of a novel reassortant H2N8 subtype avian influenza virus isolated from a domestic duck in Zhejiang Province in China. Virus Genes 52, 863–866 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11262-016-1368-0
- Avian influenza virus
- Genetic analysis
- Virus reassortment
- Domestic ducks