Complete genome analysis of two new bacteriophages isolated from impetigo strains of Staphylococcus aureus
- 461 Downloads
Exfoliative toxin A (ETA)-coding temperate bacteriophages are leading contributors to the toxic phenotype of impetigo strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Two distinct eta gene-positive bacteriophages isolated from S. aureus strains which recently caused massive outbreaks of pemphigus neonatorum in Czech maternity hospitals were characterized. The phages, designated ϕB166 and ϕB236, were able to transfer the eta gene into a prophageless S. aureus strain which afterwards converted into an ETA producer. Complete phage genome sequences were determined, and a comparative analysis of five designed genomic regions revealed major variances between them. They differed in the genome size, number of open reading frames, genome architecture, and virion protein patterns. Their high mutual sequence similarity was detected only in the terminal regions of the genome. When compared with the so far described eta phage genomes, noticeable differences were found. Thus, both phages represent two new lineages of as yet not characterized bacteriophages of the Siphoviridae family having impact on pathogenicity of impetigo strains of S. aureus.
KeywordsETA-converting bacteriophages Staphylococcus aureus Complete genome sequences Virion protein patterns
The authors would like to thank their colleagues from the participating hospitals for providing the strains of S. aureus. Thanks are also due to Ms Eva Kodytková for valuable help. This work was supported by Grant No. NT12395-5 from the Internal Grant Agency of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic and project AdmireVet CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0006-ED0006/01/01 from the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. The proteomic part was carried out with the support of the CEITEC (Central European Institute of Technology) Proteomics Core Facility, ID No. CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0068, financed from the European Regional Development Fund and Czech Science Foundation (Project No. P206-12-G151).
- 25.J. Sambrook, E.F. Fritsch, T. Maniatis, Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual, 2nd edn. (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, 1989)Google Scholar
- 29.V. Solovyev, A. Salamov, in Metagenomics and its applications in agriculture, biomedicine and environmental studies, ed. by R.W. Li (Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2011), pp. 61–78Google Scholar