Virus Genes

, Volume 49, Issue 2, pp 233–236 | Cite as

Complete genome analysis of velogenic Newcastle disease virus reference strain “Chimalhuacan”: evolution of viral lineages in Mexico

  • Angel E. Absalón
  • Andrea Mariano-Matías
  • Laura J. García
  • Andrés Morales-Garzón
  • Arnulfo Toscano-Contreras
  • Eduardo Lucio-Decanini
  • Diana V. Cortés-Espinosa


Newcastle disease virus with velogenic characteristics circulates in the poultry industry in Mexico and various other American countries. In Mexico, vaccine efficacy testing to obtain commercial registration is reliant on a challenge with a velogenic strain known colloquially as Chimalhuacan due to the site where it was isolated. In this paper, we performed a full genome sequencing of the Chimalhuacan strain. The strain belongs to Class II of APMV, particularly genotype V. The viral RNA genome is 15,192 nt in size and contains six genes: 3′ NP-P-M-F-HN-L 5′. The 3′ leader sequence is 55 nt in size and the 5′ trailer sequence 113 nt. The deduced amino acid sequence confirms a velogenic genotype with four basic amino acids at the cleavage site: 112RRQKRF117. In addition, evolutionary relatedness based on the gene sequence of the fusion protein indicates that this strain is the ancestor of the strains currently circulating in Mexico.


Chimalhuacan Newcastle disease virus Genotype V Avian diseases Velogenic 



We are grateful to Roberto Ortega and Raúl Montalvo for technical support. Private funding from Investigación Aplicada S.A. de C.V supported this study.

Supplementary material

11262_2014_1082_MOESM1_ESM.eps (6.8 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (EPS 6988 kb)


  1. 1.
    M.A. Mayo, Arch. Virol. 147, 1655 (2002)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D.J. Alexander, in Disease of poultry, ed. by J.M. Saif, H.J. Barnes, J.R. Glisson, A.M. Fadly, L.R. McDougald, D.E. Swayne, I.A. Ames (Iowa State University Press, Ames, 2003), p. 541Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Merino, H. Villegas, J.A. Quintana, N. Calderon, Int. J. Poult. Sci. 10, 713 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S.C. Courtney, L. Susta, D. Gomez, N.L. Hines, J.C. Pedersen, C.C. Brown, P.J. Miller, C.L. Afonso, J. Clin. Microbiol. 51, 508 (2013)PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.W. Walker, B.R. Heron, M.A. Mixon, Avian Dis. 17, 486 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. Merino, H. Villegas, J.A. Quintana, N. Calderon, Vet. Res. Commun. 33, 1023 (2009)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Norma Oficial Mexicana. NOM-052-ZOO-1995. Accessed 27 Oct 2013
  8. 8.
    A.E. Absalón, A. Mariano-Matías, A. Vásquez-Marquez, A. Morales-Garzón, D.V. Cortés-Espinosa, R. Ortega-García, E. Lucio-Decanini, Virus Genes 45, 304 (2012)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. Tamura, D. Peterson, N. Peterson, G. Stecher, M. Nei, S. Kumar, Mol. Biol. Evol. 28, 2731 (2011)PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    B.P.H. Peeters, O.S. de Leeuw, G. Koch, A.L.J. Gielkens, J. Virol. 73, 5001 (1999)PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.C.F.M. Dortmans, P.J.M. Rottier, G. Koch, B.P.H. Peeters, J. Gen. Virol. 92, 336 (2011)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D.G. Diel, L.H. da Silva, H. Liu, Z. Wang, P.J. Miller, C.L. Afonso, Infect. Genet. Evol. 12, 1770 (2012)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    L. Susta, K.R. Hamal, P.J. Miller, S. Cárdenas-Garcia, C.C. Brown, J.C. Pedersen, V. Gongora, C.L. Afonso, J. Clin. Microbiol. 52, 1382 (2014)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    F. Perozo, R. Merino, C.L. Afonso, P. Villegaz, N. Calderon, Avian Dis. 52, 472 (2008)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    N.L. Hines, M.L. Killian, J.C. Pedersen, M.M. Reising, N.A. Mosos, C. Mathieu-Benson, C.L. Miller, Avian Dis. 56, 387 (2012)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angel E. Absalón
    • 1
  • Andrea Mariano-Matías
    • 1
  • Laura J. García
    • 1
  • Andrés Morales-Garzón
    • 2
  • Arnulfo Toscano-Contreras
    • 2
  • Eduardo Lucio-Decanini
    • 2
  • Diana V. Cortés-Espinosa
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto Politécnico NacionalCentro de Investigación en Biotecnología Aplicada-Unidad TlaxcalaTepetitlaMexico
  2. 2.Investigación Aplicada S.A. de C.V.TehuacánMexico

Personalised recommendations