Virus Genes

, Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 408–413

HIV-1 genotypic diversity and prevalence of drug resistance among treatment naïve HIV-infected individuals in Chengdu of China

  • Peibin Zeng
  • Yu Liu
  • Miao He
  • Zhan Gao
  • Ya Zhou
  • Guohui Bian
  • Hua Shan
  • Jingxing Wang


AIDS is becoming one of leading cause of death among infectious diseases in China. There has been rapidly increasing epidemic of HIV/AIDS in Chengdu since 2003. In order to investigate HIV-1 subtype distribution, drug resistance-associated mutations as well as drug resistance prevalence among treatment naïve HIV-infected individuals in Chengdu of China, 244 HIV confirmed-reactive serum samples were collected from 2007 to 2010, including 165 obtained from blood centers and 79 obtained from hospitals. HIV-1 pol including whole protease, and partial reverse transcriptase genes was amplified, sequenced, and analyzed for subtype determination and drug resistance profile description. A total of 159 amplified sequences which were acquired from 98 sample obtained at blood centers and 61 samples obtained at hospitals had the following genotype distribution: G (0.6 %), F1 (0.6 %), A1 (0.6 %), B (1.9 %), circulating recombinant form (CRF) 01_AE (42.8 %), CRF07_BC (49.1 %), and CRF08_BC (4.4 %). There were 12.2 and 24.6 % samples obtained from blood centers and hospitals, respectively, that harbored drug resistance-associated mutations, and the prevalence of drug resistance among all cases was 1.3 %. This was the first report of HIV molecular surveillance among treatment naïve HIV-infected individuals in Chengdu. Our findings were believed to be helpful on contribution to comprehensive HIV control program in China.


HIV Treatment naïve Genotype diversity Drug resistance-associated mutations Prevalence of drug resistance 


  1. 1.
    China Ministry of Public Health: Estimated report of HIV/AIDS epidemic in China 2011. Available at Accessed 31 May 2012 (in Chinese)
  2. 2.
    J.T. Lau, K.C. Choi, H.Y. Tsui, L. Zhang, J. Zhang, Y. Lan, Y. Zhang, N. Wang, F. Cheng, J. Gu, Sex. Trans. Infect. 84, 212–216 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sichuan Provincial CDC: News Press. Overview of the Sichuan’s Notifiable infectious Diseases, 2011. Available at Accessed 31 Aug 2012 (in Chinese)
  4. 4.
    C. Du, L. Guo, D. Han, Med. J. Natl. Def. Forc. Southwest China 20, 819–821 (2010)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Q.Y. He, X. Liang, J. Prev. Med. Inf. 2, 119–121 (2008)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    B.S. Taylor, S.M. Hammer, New Engl. J. Med. 359, 1965–1966 (2008)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Manak, S. Sina, B. Anekella, I. Hewlett, E. Sanders-Buell, V. Ragupathy, J. Kim, M. Vermeulen, S.L. Stramer, E. Sabino, P. Grabarczyk, N. Michael, S. Peel, P. Garrett, S. Tovanabutra, M.P. Busch, M. Schito, AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 28, 594–606 (2012)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    L. Li, M. Morrow, M. Kermode, AIDS care 19, 1288–1295 (2007)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y. Feng, Z. Wu, R. Detels, G. Qin, L. Liu, X. Wang, J. Wang, L. Zhang, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 53(Suppl 1), S74–S80 (2010)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. Song, H. Zhang, J. Wang, Q. Liu, X. Wang, D. Operario, M. She, M. Wang, N. Zaller, AIDS behav. 24(11), 4422–4436 (2012)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. Zeng, J. Wang, Y. Huang, X. Guo, J. Li, G. Wen, T. Yang, Z. Yun, M. He, Y. Liu, Y. Yuan, J. Schulmann, S. Glynn, P. Ness, J.B. Jackson, H. Shan, Transfusion 52, 1041–1049 (2012)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Tamura, J. Dudley, M. Nei, S. Kumar, Mol. Biol. Evol. 24, 1596–1599 (2007)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    D.E. Bennett, R.J. Camacho, D. Otelea, D.R. Kuritzkes, H. Fleury, M. Kiuchi, W. Heneine, R. Kantor, M.R. Jordan, J.M. Schapiro, A.M. Vandamme, P. Sandstrom, C.A. Boucher, D. van de Vijver, S.Y. Rhee, T.F. Liu, D. Pillay, R.W. Shafer, PLoS ONE 4, e4724 (2009)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    L. Liu, R. Luan, W. Yang, L. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Nan, J. Huang, Y. Hu, G. Mao, L. Feng, Y. Gong, S.H. Vermund, Y. Jia, Curr. HIV Res. 7, 390–397 (2009)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Dai, Z. Shen, Z. Zha, R. Leng, W. Qin, C. Wang, L. Chen, M. Tian, Z. Huang, G. Chen, H. Cen, L. Xue, J. Wang, Y. Lu, B. Cao, D. Ye, J. Med. Virol. 84, 1–5 (2012)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Q.X. Wang, X. Wang, B. Chen, Z.L. Ma, S. Liang, L.J. Liao, M.J. Ma, D.Y. Wei, G.M. Qin, Y.H. Ruan, Y.M. Shao, H. Xing, Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi 32, 1082–1086 (2011)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Y.Q. Tu, M.J. Wang, J. Yao, X.M. Zhu, P.L. Pan, W.G. Xing, G.H. Zhang, R.G. Yang, Y.T. Zheng, Y. Jiang, Transfusion 49, 1865–1873 (2009)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. Xin, X. He, H. Xing, F. Sun, M. Ni, Y. Zhang, Z. Meng, Y. Feng, S. Liu, J. Wei, Y. Shao, J. Gen. Virol. 90, 1757–1761 (2009)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Liu, H. Xing, X. He, R. Xin, Y. Zhang, J. Zhu, Y. Shao, Arch. Virol. 153, 1233–1240 (2008)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    L. Li, S. Liang, L. Chen, W. Liu, H. Li, Y. Liu, Z. Bao, Z. Wang, D. Zhuang, S. Liu, J. Li, AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 26, 699–704 (2010)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Q. Su, H. Liang, P. Cen, Z. Bi, P. Zhou, AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 28, 725–728 (2012)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. Beyrer, M.H. Razak, K. Lisam, J. Chen, W. Lui, X.F. Yu, AIDS 14, 75–83 (2000)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    F. Zhang, J.E. Haberer, Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Ma, D. Zhao, L. Yu, E.P. Goosby, AIDS 21(Suppl 8), S143–S148 (2007)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    L. Ma, J. Sun, H. Xing, X. Si, L. Yuan, Y. Guo, H. Cheng, Y. Shao, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 44, 14–19 (2007)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    L. Liao, H. Xing, H. Shang, J. Li, P. Zhong, L. Kang, H. Cheng, X. Si, S. Jiang, X. Li, Y. Shao, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 53(Suppl 1), S10–S14 (2010)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    B. Zhao, X. Han, D. Dai, J. Liu, H. Ding, J. Xu, Z. Chu, T. Bice, Y. Diao, H. Shang, AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 27, 1047–1053 (2011)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J.R. Ye, H.Y. Lu, W.S. Wang, L. Guo, R.L. Xin, S.Q. Yu, T.C. Wu, Y. Zeng, X. He, AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 28, 418–423 (2012)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    C. Yang, S. Liu, T. Zhang, Y. Hou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, G. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Chen, M. Li, Z. Zhu, AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 8, 19 (2012)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    C.A. Brennan, S.L. Stramer, V. Holzmayer, J. Yamaguchi, G.A. Foster, E.P. Notari Iv, G. Schochetman, S.G. Devare, Transfusion 49, 125–133 (2009)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    AIDS 22, 625–635 (2008)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peibin Zeng
    • 1
  • Yu Liu
    • 1
  • Miao He
    • 1
  • Zhan Gao
    • 1
  • Ya Zhou
    • 1
  • Guohui Bian
    • 1
  • Hua Shan
    • 2
  • Jingxing Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Center of Blood Transfusion-Related Diseases, Institute of Blood TransfusionChinese Academy of Medical SciencesChengduPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.The Johns Hopkins HospitalBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations