Virus Genes

, Volume 47, Issue 2, pp 317–329 | Cite as

The genetic and antigenic diversity of avian influenza viruses isolated from domestic ducks, muscovy ducks, and chickens in northern and southern Vietnam, 2010–2012

  • Masatoshi Okamatsu
  • Tatsuya Nishi
  • Naoki Nomura
  • Naoki Yamamoto
  • Yoshihiro Sakoda
  • Kenji Sakurai
  • Huy Duc Chu
  • Long Pham Thanh
  • Long Van Nguyen
  • Nam Van Hoang
  • Tien Ngoc Tien
  • Reiko Yoshida
  • Ayato Takada
  • Hiroshi KidaEmail author


To estimate the prevalence of avian influenza virus infection in Vietnam, surveillance was conducted in domestic and wild birds from households, live-bird markets, slaughtering sites, and bird sanctuaries in Vietnam between October 2010 and October 2012. Of the 4,550 samples collected, 226 influenza A virus isolates were obtained from domestic ducks, muscovy ducks, and chickens. Of these, 25 and 22 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) were isolated from apparently healthy domestic ducks in live-bird markets and slaughtering sites in northern and southern Vietnam, respectively. The HA genes of H5 viruses isolated from birds in northern Vietnam phylogenetically belonged to the genetic clade and those in southern Vietnam belonged to the genetic clade 1.1. In addition, 39 H3, 12 H4, 1 H5, 93 H6, 2 H7, 18 H9, 3 H10, and 11 H11 viruses were isolated. Phylogenetic and antigenic analyses of the H6 and H9 viruses revealed that they were closely related to the isolates obtained from domestic poultry in China. Phylogenetic analyses of internal gene segments of these isolates revealed that these viruses were circulating in both domestic and wild birds in Asia and reassortment events had occurred frequently. Therefore, it will be important to continue the surveillance and strict controls over the movement and trade of poultry and poultry products in order to eradicate H5N1 HPAIV from Asia.


Avian influenza virus H5N1 Surveillance Vietnam Live-bird market Reassortment 



We thank Drs. Luk S. M. Geraldine and Y. Guan for providing viruses. We are grateful for the support of the Programme on Surveillance of Wild Birds and Domestic Animals along Migratory Flyways under the OIE/JTF Project for Strengthening HPAI Control in Asia. This work was partially supported by J-GRID, the Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. This work was also partially supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency Basic Research Programs. We are grateful for the support of the Global Center of Excellence Program of Hokkaido University.

Supplementary material

11262_2013_954_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (166 kb)
Phylogenetic trees for the PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M, and NS genes of influenza viruses. Nucleotides 1,652–1,895 (244 bp) of PB2, 1,363–1,610 (248 bp) of PB1, 1,190–1,446 (257 bp) of PA, 1,188–1,434 (247 bp) of NP, 52–666 (615 bp) of M, and 46–284 (239 bp) of NS were used for ML phylogenetic analysis. Horizontal distances are proportional to the minimum number of nucleotide differences required to join nodes and sequences. Numbers at each node indicate the confidence level in a bootstrap analysis with 1,000 replications. Representative viruses isolated in the present study are marked by black circle (North) or triangle (South) and the representative of each sublineage are shown in bold. Supplementary material 1 (PPTX 166 kb)
11262_2013_954_MOESM2_ESM.xls (77 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (XLS 77 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masatoshi Okamatsu
    • 1
  • Tatsuya Nishi
    • 1
  • Naoki Nomura
    • 1
  • Naoki Yamamoto
    • 1
  • Yoshihiro Sakoda
    • 1
  • Kenji Sakurai
    • 2
  • Huy Duc Chu
    • 3
  • Long Pham Thanh
    • 3
  • Long Van Nguyen
    • 3
  • Nam Van Hoang
    • 3
  • Tien Ngoc Tien
    • 3
  • Reiko Yoshida
    • 4
  • Ayato Takada
    • 4
  • Hiroshi Kida
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Disease Control, Graduate School of Veterinary MedicineHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  2. 2.OIE Regional Representation for Asia and the PacificThe University of TokyoBunkyo-kuJapan
  3. 3.Ministry of Agriculture and Rural DevelopmentHanoiVietnam
  4. 4.Research Center for Zoonosis ControlHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

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