Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Diversity of Beet curly top Iran virus isolated from different hosts in Iran


Beet curly top Iran virus (BCTIV) is a major pathogen of sugar beet in Iran. In order to study diversity of BCTIV, we sampled 68 plants in Iran during the summer of 2010 with curly top disease symptoms on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.), sea beets (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima), and sugar beets (Beta vulgaris). Plant samples showing leaf curling, yellowing, and/or swelling of veins on the lower leaf surfaces were collected from various fields in Khorasan Razavi, Northern Khorasan (north-eastern Iran), East Azarbayejan, West Azarbayejan (north-western Iran), and Fars (southern Iran) provinces. Using rolling circle amplification coupled with restriction digests, cloning, and Sanger sequencing, we determined the genomes of nine new BCTIV isolates from bean, cowpea, tomato, sea beet, and sugar beet in Iran. Our analysis reveals ~11 % diversity amongst BCTIV isolates and we detect evidence of recombination within these genomes.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1


  1. 1.

    C.W. Bennett, Monograph No. 7 (APS Press, St Paul, 1971)

  2. 2.

    H.R. Bolok Yazdi, J. Heydarnejad, H. Massumi, Virus Genes 36, 539–545 (2008)

  3. 3.

    R.W. Briddon, J. Heydarnejad, F. Khosrowfar, H. Massumi, D.P. Martin, A. Varsani, Virus Res. 152, 169–175 (2010)

  4. 4.

    J.K. Brown, C.M. Fauquet, R.W. Briddon, M. Zerbini, E. Moriones, J. Navas-Castillo, in Virus Taxonomy: Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses: Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, eds. by A.M.Q. King, M.J. Adams, E.B. Carstens, E.J. Lefkowitz (Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, 2011), pp. 251–374

  5. 5.

    L.F. Chen, K. Brannigan, R. Clark, R.L. Gilbertson, Plant Dis. 94, 99–108 (2010)

  6. 6.

    R.C. Edgar, Nucleic Acids Res. 32, 1792–1797 (2004)

  7. 7.

    S. Guindon, J.F. Dufayard, V. Lefort, M. Anisimova, W. Hordijk, O. Gascuel, Syst. Biol. 59(3), 307–321 (2010)

  8. 8.

    R.O. Hampton, G. Thottappilly, H.W. Rossel, in Advances in Cowpea Research, ed. by B.B. Sing, D.R. Mohan Raj, K.E. Dashiell, L.E.N. Jackai (Copublication of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and Japan International Research Center for Agricaltural Sciences (JIRCAS) IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria, 1997), pp. 159–175

  9. 9.

    J. Heydarnejad, E. Hosseini Abhari, H.R. Bolok Yazdi, H. Massumi, J. Phytopathol. 125, 321–325 (2007)

  10. 10.

    J. Heydarnejad, N. Keyvani, S. Razavinejad, H. Massumi, A. Varsani, Arch Virol. (2012). doi:10.1007/s00705-012-1485-6

  11. 11.

    E. Hosseini Abhari, J. Heydarnejad, H. Massumi, A. Hosseini Pour, K. Izadpanah, in Proceedings of the Second Asian Conference on Plant Pathology (National University of Singapore, Singapore, 2005), p. 62

  12. 12.

    B. Krenz, J.R. Thompson, M. Fuchs, K.L. Perry, J. Virol. 86, 7715 (2012)

  13. 13.

    G. Loconsole, P. Saldarelli, H. Doddapaneni, V. Savino, G.P. Martelli, M. Saponari, Virology 432, 162–172 (2012)

  14. 14.

    D.P. Martin, P. Lemey, M. Lott, V. Moulton, D. Posada, P. Lefeuvre, Bioinformatics 26, 2462–2463 (2010)

  15. 15.

    B. Muhire, D.P. Martin, J.K. Brown, J. Navas-Castillo, E. Moriones, F.M. Zerbini, R. Rivera-Bustamante, V.G. Malathi, R.W. Briddon, A. Varsani, Arch. Virol. (in press)

  16. 16.

    D.N. Shepherd, D.P. Martin, P. Lefeuvre, A.L. Monjane, B.E. Owor, E.P. Rybicki, A. Varsani, J. Virol. Methods 149, 97–102 (2008)

  17. 17.

    M.J. Soto, M.L. Gilbertson, Phytopathology 93, 479–484 (2003)

  18. 18.

    M.J. Soto, L.F. Chen, Y.S. Seo, R.L. Gilbertson, Virology 341, 257–270 (2005)

  19. 19.

    A. Varma, V.G. Malathi, Ann. Appl. Biol. 142, 145–164 (2003)

  20. 20.

    A. Varsani, D.M. Shepherd, K. Dent, A.L. Monjane, E.P. Rybicki, D.P. Martin, Virol. J. 6, 36 (2009)

  21. 21.

    R. Velasquez-Valle, J. Mena-Covarrubias, L.R. Reveles-Torres, G.R. Argüello-Astorga, M.A. Salas-Luevano, J.A. Mauricio-Castillo, Plant Dis. 96(5), 771–772 (2012)

  22. 22.

    Y.P. Zhang, J.K. Uyemoto, B.C. Kirkpatrick, J. Virol. Methods 71, 45–50 (1998)

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Jahangir Heydarnejad.

Electronic supplementary material

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Gharouni Kardani, S., Heydarnejad, J., Zakiaghl, M. et al. Diversity of Beet curly top Iran virus isolated from different hosts in Iran. Virus Genes 46, 571–575 (2013).

Download citation


  • Beet curly top Iran virus
  • Bean
  • Cowpea
  • Genetic variability
  • Rolling circle amplification
  • Iran