Virus Genes

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 169–175 | Cite as

Prion protein gene polymorphism and genetic risk evaluation for scrapie in all Turkish native sheep breeds

  • H. Meydan
  • B. Yüceer
  • R. Degirmenci
  • M. M. Özkan
  • M. A. Yildiz
Article

Abstract

The aim of this study was to identify the prion protein (PrP) gene polymorphism in a total of 1,110 healthy sheep from 18 Turkish native sheep breeds. There were nine alleles and 22 genotypes observed based on codons 136, 154, and 171 of the PrP gene. The ARQ allele was predominant for all breeds. The most resistant allele to scrapie, ARR, was present in all breeds. The VRQ allele, associated with the highest susceptibility to scrapie, was detected at low frequencies in İvesi (0.06), Kıvırcık (0.021), Sakız (0.010), Karayaka (0.011), Çine Çaparı (0.012), and Güneykaraman (0.017). In general, the ARQ/ARQ genotype was predominant in all breeds. The most resistant genotype to scrapie, ARR/ARR, was found with the frequency lower than 0.180. The most susceptible genotype, VRQ/VRQ, was found in only Kıvırcık. The TRR and TRH alleles and the genotypes of ARR/TRR, ARR/ARK, and ARH/TRH have been found for the first time in Turkish native sheep breeds. According to these results, all breeds belong to risk group R3 followed by R2. It is propounded that the susceptibility to scrapie increased from eastern to western part of Turkey. Our findings of Turkish native sheep breeds with PrP gene polymorphisms will assist the sheep breeding program for selection of scrapie resistance genotypes to reduce the risk of scrapie.

Keywords

Scrapie PrP gene Polymorphism Genetic risk Turkish native sheep 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Authors would like to thank Dr. H. Akçapınar, Dr. M. Ertuğrul, Dr. C. Özbeyaz, Dr. Z. Ulutaş, Dr. O. Karaca, Dr. M.S. Balcıoğlu, Dr. İ. Cemal, Dr. S. Koçak, Dr. S. Koncagül, Dr. H.İ. Özbayat, Ü.Ö. Akyel, Y.G. Aydoğdu, H.O. Taşkesen, B. Özarslan, F.T. Özbaşer, M. Çelikbilek, R. Yüksel, M. Köse, E. Sezgin, and H. Erol for their assistance in the collection of samples, and to Dr. N. Akman for his suggestions on this study. We are also grateful to Dr. W. Goldmann, The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, UK, for his helpful comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. This study was conducted at the Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Animal Sciences, Ankara, Turkey and was partially supported by a grant from the Scientific Research Projects (BAP) of Ankara University (Project No: BAP-09B4347007; Project coordinator: Dr. M.M. Özkan).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

References

  1. 1.
    S.B. Prusiner, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 13363–13383 (1998)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    N. Hunter, Trends Microbiol. 5, 8 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    W. Goldmann, Vet. Res. 39, 30 (2008)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    N. Hunter, Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1772, 619–628 (2007)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    European Commission Decision, Off. J. Eur. Union 46, L41 (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M.W. Bruford, D.G. Bradley, G. Luikart, Nat. Genet. 4, 2–12 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M.A. Zeder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 11597–11604 (2008)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. Ün, K. Oztabak, N. Ozdemir, I. Akis, A. Mengib, Small Rumin. Res. 74, 260–264 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. Alvarez, B. Gutierrez-Gil, M. Uzun, F.S. Primitivo, J.J. Arranz, Small Rumin. Res. 99, 93–98 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Y. Öner, K. Yesilbağ, E. Tuncel, C. Elmacı, Animal. 5, 1728–1733 (2011)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    F. Frootan, G. Nikbakht, N.Ö. Özgentürk, C. Ün, Biochem. Genet. (2011). doi: 10.1007/s10528-011-9470-4 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S.A. Miller, D.D. Dykes, H.F. Polesk, Nucl. Acids Res. 16(3), 1215 (1988)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    W. Sipos, M. Kraus, F. Schmoll, R. Achmann, W. Baumgartner, J. Vet. Med. A. 49, 415–418 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Nei, Molecular Evolutionary Genetics (Columbia University Press, NY, 1987), pp. 149–151Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Thorgeirsdottir, S. Sigurdarson, H.M. Thorisson, G. Georgsson, A. Palsdottir, J. Gen. Virol. 80, 2527–2534 (1999)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.A. Tranulis, A. Osland, B. Bratberg, M.J. Ulvund, J. Gen. Virol. 80, 1073–1077 (1999)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    E. O’Doherty, M. Aherne, S. Ennis, E. Weavers, N. Hunter, J.F. Roche, T. Sweeney, Vet. Rec. 146, 335–338 (2000)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. Vaccari, R. Petraroli, U. Agrimi, C. Eleni, M.G. Perfetti, M.A. Di Bari, L. Morelli, C. Ligios, L. Busani, R. Nonno, G. Di Guardo, Arch. Virol. 146, 2029–2037 (2001)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Arnold, C. Meek, C.R. Webb, L.J. Hoinville, Prev. Vet. Med. 56, 227–249 (2002)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    I. Palhiére, D. Francois, J.M. Elsen, F. Barillet, Y. Amigues, G. Perret, J. Bouix, in Proc. 7th World Cong. Genet. Appl. to Livest. Prod. CD-ROM no: 13–13 (2002)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    C. Drögemüller, F. de Vries, H. Hamann, T. Leeb, O. Distl, Vet. Rec. 154, 257–260 (2004)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. Acin, I. Martin-Burriel, W. Goldmann, J. Lyahyai, M. Monzon, R. Bolea, A. Smith, C. Rodellar, J.J. Badiola, P. Zaragoza, J. Gen. Virol. 85, 2103–2110 (2004)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    L.T. Gama, M.I. Carolino, M.F. Santos-Silva, J.A. Pimenta, M.S. Costa, Livest. Sci. 99, 175–184 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    J.H. Brandsma, L.L.G. Janss, A.H. Visscher, Livest. Prod. Sci. 85, 59–64 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    W. Goldmann, M. Baylis, C. Chihota, E. Stevenson, N. Hunter, J. Appl. Microbiol. 98, 1294–1302 (2005)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    P.L. Acutis, F. Martucci, M. Mazza, S. Peletto, B. Iulini, C. Corona, E. Bozzetta, C. Casalone, M. Caramelli, Arch. Virol. 151, 1875–1880 (2006)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    E. Gootwine, A. Abdulkhaliq, K.I.Z. Jawasreh, A. Valle Zárate, Small Rumin. Res. 77, 80–83 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Y. L’Homme, A. Leboeuf, J. Cameron, Can. J. Vet. Res. 72, 320–324 (2008)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    C.S. Sotomaior, V.S. Sotomaior, H.M.F. Madeira, V. Thomaz-Soccol, Anim. Genet. 39, 659–661 (2008)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    K. Tsunoda, T. Namikawa, K. Sato, M.A. Hasnath, M.M. Nyunt, H.B. Rajbandary, C.B. Loc, T. Zanchiv, H. Chang, W. Sun, T. Dorji, Biochem. Genet. 48, 13–25 (2010)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    M. Karami, C. Amirinia, E.J. Kashan Naser, N. Amirmozafari, M. Chamani, M.H. Banabazi, Afr. J. Biotechnol. 10, 15819–15822 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    M.E. Babar, A. Farid, B.F. Benkel, J. Ahmad, I.A. Sajid, M. Imran, T. Hussain, A. Nadeem, J. Genet. 87, 2 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    F. Guan, L. Pan, J. Li, H. Tang, C. Zhu, G. Shi, Virus Genes 43, 147–152 (2011)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Y. Wang, Z. Qin, J. Qiao, D. Zhao, Virus Genes 37, 128–130 (2008)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Meydan
    • 1
  • B. Yüceer
    • 2
  • R. Degirmenci
    • 3
  • M. M. Özkan
    • 1
  • M. A. Yildiz
    • 1
  1. 1.Animal Sciences, Faculty of AgricultureAnkara UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Animal Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineAnkara UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Ulaş General Directorate of Agricultural EnterprisesSivasTurkey

Personalised recommendations