Virus Genes

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 63–68 | Cite as

Phylogeny and evolution of Newcastle disease virus genotypes isolated in Asia during 2008–2011

  • Mohammad Majid Ebrahimi
  • Shahla Shahsavandi
  • Gholamreza Moazenijula
  • Mahdi Shamsara


The full-length fusion (F) genes of 51 Newcastle disease (ND) strains isolated from chickens in Asia during the period 2008–2011 were genetically analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that genotype VII of NDV still predominant in the domestic poultry of Asia. The sub-genotype VIIb circulated in the Iran and Indian sub-continent countries, whereas VIId sub-genotype existed in Far East countries. The non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions ratio was calculated 0.27 for VIId sub-genotype and 0.51 for VIIb sub-genotype indicates purifying/stabilizing selection which resulted in a low evolution rate in F gene of VIIb sub-genotype. There is evidence of localized positive selection when comparing these sub-genotypes protein sequences. Five codons in F gene of ND viruses had a posterior probability >90% using the Bayesian method, indicating these sites were under positive selection. To identify sites under positive selection; amino acid substitution classified depends on their radicalism and neutrality. The results indicate that although most positions were under purifying selection and can be eliminated, a few positions located in sub-genotype specific regions were subject to positive selection.


Newcastle disease Fusion gene Positive selection evolution 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Majid Ebrahimi
    • 1
  • Shahla Shahsavandi
    • 1
  • Gholamreza Moazenijula
    • 2
  • Mahdi Shamsara
    • 3
  1. 1.Razi Vaccine & Serum Research InstituteKarajIran
  2. 2.Razi Vaccine & Serum Research InstituteShirazIran
  3. 3.National Institute for Genetic Engineering & BiotechnologyTehranIran

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