Virus Genes

, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 441–449 | Cite as

Genetic characterization of subtype H1 avian influenza viruses isolated from live poultry markets in Zhejiang Province, China, in 2011

  • Hai-bo Wu
  • Chao-tan Guo
  • Ru-feng Lu
  • Li-hua Xu
  • En-kang Wo
  • Jin-biao You
  • Yi-ting Wang
  • Qiao-gang Wang
  • Nan-ping Wu


Nine avian influenza A viruses (AIVs), H1N2 (n = 2) and H1N3 (n = 7), were isolated from domestic ducks in live poultry markets in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China, in 2011. All viruses were characterized by whole genome sequencing with subsequent phylogenetic analysis and genetic comparison. Phylogenetic analysis of all eight viral genes showed that the viruses clustered in the Eurasian lineage of influenza A viruses. The hemagglutinin cleavage site of all viruses displayed features of a monobasic cleavage site. Although there was no evidence of re-assortment in subtype H1 AIVs among the avian species and mammalian hosts in this study, continued surveillance is needed considering the important role of the domestic duck in the dissemination and re-assortment of AIVs.


Avian influenza viruses Subtype H1 Genetic analysis Domestic ducks Re-assortment 



This study was supported by Grants from the National Science Foundation of the People’s Republic of China (30872163), National Key Technologies R&D Programme for the 12th Five-Year Plan of China (2012ZX1000-004-005) and the State Key Laboratory of independent task (No. 2010ZZ04).

Supplementary material

11262_2012_716_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (34 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 34 kb)
11262_2012_716_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (215 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 215 kb)


  1. 1.
    R.G. Webster, W.J. Bean, O.T. Gorman, T.M. Chambers, Y. Kawaoka, Microbiol. Rev. 56, 152–179 (1992)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Y. Kawaoka, T.M. Chambers, W.L. Sladen, R.G. Webster, Virology 163(1), 247–250 (1988)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Liu, S. He, D. Walker, N. Zhou, D.R. Perez, B. Mo, F. Li, X. Huang, R.G. Webster, R.J. Webby, Virology 305(2), 267–275 (2003)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. Cardona, K. Yee, T. Carpenter, Poult. Sci. 88(4), 856–859 (2009)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    D.C. Nguyen, T.M. Uyeki, S. Jadhao, T. Maines, M. Shaw, Y. Matsuoka, C. Smith, T. Rowe, X. Lu, H. Hall, X. Xu, A. Balish, A. Klimov, T.M. Tumpey, D.E. Swayne, L.P. Huynh, H.K. Nghiem, H.H. Nguyen, L.T. Hoang, N.J. Cox, J.M. Katz, J. Virol. 79(7), 4201–4212 (2005)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    T. Wisedchanwet, M. Wongphatcharachai, S. Boonyapisitsopa, N. Bunpapong, P. Kitikoon, A. Amonsin, Virol. J. 8, 131 (2011)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    H.J. Moon, M.S. Song, D.J. Cruz, K.J. Park, P.N. Pascua, J.H. Lee, Y.H. Baek, D.H. Choi, Y.K. Choi, C.J. Kim, Arch. Virol. 155(2), 229–241 (2010)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R.G. Webster, Lancet 363(9404), 234–236 (2004)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Peiris, K.Y. Yuen, C.W. Leung, K.H. Chan, P.L. Ip, R.W. Lai, W.K. Orr, K.F. Shortridge, Lancet 354, 916–917 (1999)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Y.P. Lin, M. Shaw, V. Gregory, K. Cameron, W. Lim, A. Klimov, K. Subbarao, Y. Guan, S. Krauss, K. Shortridge, R. Webster, N. Cox, A. Hay, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 97, 9654–9658 (2000)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K.R. Cameron, V. Gregory, J. Banks, I.H. Brown, D.J. Alexander, A.J. Hay, Y.P. Lin, Virology 278(1), 36–41 (2000)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    W.M. Jiang, S. Liu, J. Chen, G.Y. Hou, J.P. Li, Y.F. Cao, Q.Y. Zhuang, Y. Li, B.X. Huang, J.M. Chen, J. Gen. Virol. 91(Pt 10), 2491–2496 (2010)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    K. Ji, W.M. Jiang, S. Liu, J.M. Chen, J. Chen, G.Y. Hou, J.P. Li, B.X. Huang, J. Virol. Methods 163(2), 186–189 (2010)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    B.S. Kim, H.M. Kang, J.G. Choi, M.C. Kim, H.R. Kim, M.R. Paek, J.H. Kwon, Y.J. Lee, Poult. Sci. 90(7), 1449–1461 (2011)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Chen, Z. Yang, Q. Chen, X. Liu, F. Fang, H. Chang, D. Li, Z. Chen, Virus Genes 38(1), 66–73 (2009)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Office International des Epizootics. Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines, 3rd edn. (OIE, Paris, 1996), pp. 155–160Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    E. Hoffmann, J. Stech, Y. Guan, R.G. Webster, D.R. Perez, Arch. Virol. 146(12), 2275–2289 (2001)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    N.Z. Jandaghi, T.M. Azad, M. Naseri, J. Yavarian, R. Nategh, Arch. Virol. 155(5), 717–721 (2010)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    K. Tamura, J. Dudley, M. Nei, S. Kumar, Mol. Biol. Evol. 24(8), 1596–1599 (2007)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    T. Horimoto, T. Ito, D.J. Alexander, Y. Kawaoka, J. Vet. Med. Sci. 57(5), 927–930 (1995)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S.J. Gamblin, L.F. Haire, R.J. Russell, D.J. Stevens, B. Xiao, Y. Ha, N. Vasisht, D.A. Steinhauer, R.S. Daniels, A. Elliot, D.C. Wiley, J.J. Skehel, Science 303(5665), 1838–1842 (2004)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. Stevens, A.L. Corper, C.F. Basler, J.K. Taubenberger, P. Palese, I.A. Wilson, Science 303(5665), 1866–1870 (2004)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Liu, D.J. Stevens, L.F. Haire, P.A. Walker, P.J. Coombs, R.J. Russell, S.J. Gamblin, J.J. Skehel, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 106(40), 17175–17180 (2009)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A.C. Bateman, M.G. Busch, A.I. Karasin, N. Bovin, C.W. Olsen, J. Virol. 82, 8204–8209 (2008)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. Helenius, M. Aebi, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 73, 1019–1049 (2004)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Y. Guan, K.F. Shortridge, S. Krauss, R.G. Webster, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 96, 9363–9367 (1999)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    P. Zhang, Y. Tang, X. Liu, W. Liu, X. Zhang, H. Liu, D. Peng, S. Gao, Y. Wu, L. Zhang, S. Lu, X. Liu, J. Virol. 83(17), 8428–8438 (2009)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    F.Y. Aoki, G. Boivin, N. Roberts, Antivir. Ther. 12, 603–616 (2007)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    H. Zaraket, R. Saito, Y. Suzuki, T. Baranovich, C. Dapat, I. Caperig-Dapat, H. Suzuki, J. Clin. Microbiol. 48, 1085–1092 (2010)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    V.M. Deyde, X. Xu, R.A. Bright, M. Shaw, C.B. Smith, Y. Zhang, Y. Shu, L.V. Gubareva, N.J. Cox, A.I. Klimov, J. Infect. Dis. 196(2), 249–257 (2007)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. Liu, Y. Bi, K. Qin, G. Fu, J. Yang, J. Peng, G. Ma, Q. Liu, J. Pu, F. Tian, J. Clin. Microbiol. 47(8), 2643–2646 (2009)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    G. Neumann, T. Noda, Y. Kawaoka, Nature 459, 931–939 (2009)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    B. Olsen, V.J. Munster, A. Wallensten, J. Waldenström, A.D. Osterhaus, R.A. Fouchier, Science 312(5772), 384–388 (2006)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    O.M. Jeong, Y.J. Kim, J.G. Choi, H.M. Kang, M.C. Kim, J.H. Kwon, Y.J. Lee, Virus Genes 42(1), 55–63 (2011)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    S.J. Kang, H.M. Kim, Y.H. Kim, S.D. Hwang, J.S. Shin, K.B. Ku, H.S. Kim, S.H. Seo, Virus Genes 38(1), 80–84 (2009)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    K.S. Li, K.M. Xu, J.S. Peiris, L.L. Poon, K.Z. Yu, K.Y. Yuen, K.F. Shortridge, R.G. Webster, Y. Guan, J. Virol. 77, 6988–6994 (2003)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    M. Wang, B. Di, D.H. Zhou, B.J. Zheng, H. Jing, Y.P. Lin, Y.F. Liu, X.W. Wu, P.Z. Qin, Y.L. Wang, L.Y. Jian, X.Z. Li, J.X. Xu, E.J. Lu, T.G. Li, JXu Emerg, Infect. Dis. 12(11), 1773–1775 (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hai-bo Wu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chao-tan Guo
    • 2
  • Ru-feng Lu
    • 3
  • Li-hua Xu
    • 4
  • En-kang Wo
    • 2
  • Jin-biao You
    • 2
  • Yi-ting Wang
    • 2
  • Qiao-gang Wang
    • 2
  • Nan-ping Wu
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, School of MedicineZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Institute of BioengineeringZhejiang Academy of Medical SciencesHangzhouChina
  3. 3.Department of EmergencyThe First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical UniversityHangzhouChina
  4. 4.Animal Husbandry and Veterinary InstituteZhejiang Academy of Agricultural ScienceHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations