Virus Genes

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 55–62

Characterisation of a highly pathogenic H5N1 clade 2.3.2 influenza virus isolated from swans in Shanghai, China

  • Guo Zhao
  • Lei Zhong
  • Xinlun Lu
  • Jiao Hu
  • Xiaobing Gu
  • Yan Kai
  • Qingqing Song
  • Qing Sun
  • Jinbao Liu
  • Daxin Peng
  • Xiaoquan Wang
  • Xiaowen Liu
  • Xiufan Liu
Article

Abstract

In spring 2009, one strain of H5N1 clade 2.3.2 virus was isolated from wild swans in Shanghai, indicating the importance of the wild swan in the ecology of this highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in Eastern China. Pathogenicity experiments conducted in this study indicated that the virus was highly pathogenic for chickens but lowly pathogenic for mammalian hosts, as evidenced by reduced infection of mice. The analysis of complete genome sequences and genetic evolution showed that A/Swan/Shanghai/10/09 (SW/SH/09) may be derived from the strain A/silky chicken/Shantou/475/2004 (CK/ST/04), which is homologous to the influenza viruses isolated from chicken, duck, pika, little egret, swan, mandarin duck and bar-headed goose in China Hunan, China Qinghai, Mongolia, Russia, Japan, Korea, Laos and Hong Kong during 2007–2011, indicating that the virus has retro-infected diverse wild birds from chicken, and significant spread of the virus is still ongoing through overlapping migratory flyways. On the basis of the molecular analysis, we also found that there was a deletion of the glycosylation site (NSS) in amino acid 156 of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein when compared with that of the other Clade 2.3.2 viruses isolated between 2007 and 2011. More importantly, the sequence analysis of SW/SH/09 virus displayed the drug-resistant mutations on the matrix protein (M2) and neuraminidase (NA) genes.

Keywords

Avian influenza H5N1 virus Phylogenetic analysis Swan 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guo Zhao
    • 1
  • Lei Zhong
    • 1
  • Xinlun Lu
    • 1
  • Jiao Hu
    • 1
  • Xiaobing Gu
    • 1
  • Yan Kai
    • 1
  • Qingqing Song
    • 1
  • Qing Sun
    • 1
  • Jinbao Liu
    • 1
  • Daxin Peng
    • 1
  • Xiaoquan Wang
    • 1
  • Xiaowen Liu
    • 1
  • Xiufan Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Veterinary MedicineYangzhou UniversityYangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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