Virus Genes

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 46–54 | Cite as

Phylogenetic analysis of avian influenza viruses of H11 subtype isolated in Kazakhstan

  • Kobey Karamendin
  • Aidyn Kydyrmanov
  • Kainar Zhumatov
  • Saule Asanova
  • Naylya Ishmukhametova
  • Marat Sayatov


Avian influenza viruses A/turkey/Almaty/535/04 (H11N9) and A/herring gull/Atyrau/2186/07 (H11N2) isolated in Kazakhstan were characterized as low pathogenic in biological and genetic studies. Putative glycosylation sites were identical to the putative sites in published H11, N2, and N9 isolates sequences. Compared with published data no additional basic amino acid residues were found in the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site of these Kazakhstan strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a rare case of Eurasian-American reassortment in the HA gene of A/herring gull/Atyrau/2186/07 (H11N2) virus and significant sequence difference of the HA and the neuraminidase genes of the virus A/turkey/Almaty/535/04 (H11N9) from the previously published GenBank viruses.


Avian influenza H11 subtype virus Reassortment Kazakhstan 



Research studies were conducted within the framework of projects “Epidemiological monitoring of Kazakhstan part of the Caspian Sea for indication of different pathogens circulating in populations of wild birds, animals and fish and their molecular-biological characterization” and “Development of PCR kit for simultaneous ortho- and paramyxoviruses infections diagnostics” funded by Education and Science Ministry of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The authors would like to thank M. Lipkind (Kimron Veterinary Institute, Beit Dagan, Israel) and Dr R. Fouchier (Institute of Virology of Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands) for kindly providing the spectrum of antiNA and subtype specific anti-haemagglutinin sera for subtyping of our viruses. We are thankful to Dr. Mary Pantin-Jackwood (Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens, USA), Simon Goodman (Institute of Comparative Biology, University of Leeds, UK) for critical viewing and editing this article and Dr. Jinling Li for kindly providing her H11 article. We also thank Alexander Shevtsov and other colleagues from National Center of Biotechnology (Astana, Kazakhstan) for skillful sequencing of our viruses.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kobey Karamendin
    • 1
  • Aidyn Kydyrmanov
    • 1
  • Kainar Zhumatov
    • 1
  • Saule Asanova
    • 1
  • Naylya Ishmukhametova
    • 1
  • Marat Sayatov
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Viral EcologyInstitute of Microbiology and VirologyAlmatyKazakhstan

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