Virus Genes

, Volume 42, Issue 3, pp 377–387 | Cite as

Genetic characterisation of African swine fever viruses from recent and historical outbreaks in Sardinia (1978–2009)

  • Monica Giammarioli
  • Carmina Gallardo
  • Annalisa Oggiano
  • Carmen Iscaro
  • Raquel Nieto
  • Claudia Pellegrini
  • Silvia Dei Giudici
  • Marisa Arias
  • Gian Mario De Mia


Three discrete regions of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) were analysed in the genomes of a wide range of isolates collected from wild and domestic pigs in Sardinia, over a 31-year period (1978–2009). The analysis was conducted by genotyping based on sequence data from three single copy ASF genes. The E183L gene encoding the structural protein p54 and part of the gene encoding the p72 protein were used to delineate genotypes, before intra-genotypic resolution of viral relationships by analysis of tetramer amino acid repeats within the hypervariable central variable region (CVR) of the B602L gene. The data revealed that these isolates did not show significant variation in their p72 and p54 sequence when compared between different isolates showing a remarkable genetic stability of these genome regions. In particular, the phylogeny revealed that all the Sardinian isolates belong to the same largest and most homogeneous p72 genotype I together with viruses from Europe, South America, the Caribbean and West Africa, and p54 genotype Ia which comprises viruses from Europe and America. The analysis of B602L gene revealed a minor difference in the number of tetramer repeats, placing the Sardinian isolates into two clusters, accordingly to their temporal distribution, namely sub-group III and sub-group X, this latter showing a deletion of 12 tetramer repeats located in the centre of the array. The genetic variation of this fragment suggests that one sub-group could be derived from the other supporting the hypothesis of a single introduction of ASFV in Sardinia.


African swine fever virus Sardinia Molecular epidemiology p54, p72, pB602L (CVR) sequencing 



The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n. 211691 (KBBE-2007-1-3-05 ASFRISK Project).


  1. 1.
    R.J. Rowlands, V. Michaud, L. Heath, G. Hutchings, C. Oura, W. Vosloo, R. Dwarka, T. Onashvili, E. Albina, L.K. Dixon, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14, 1870–1874 (2008)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    L.K. Dixon, J.M. Escribano, C. Martins, D.L. Rock, M.L. Salas, M.L. Salas, P.J. Wilkinson, in Virus taxonomy, VIIIth Report of the ITCV, ed. by C.M. Fauquet, M.A. Mayo, J. Maniloff, U. Desselberger, L.A. Ball (Elsevier/Academic Press, London, 2005), pp. 135–143Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R.J. Yañez, J.M. Rodriguez, M.L. Nogal, L. Yuste, C. Enriquez, J.F. Rodriguez, E. Viñuela, Virology 208, 249–278 (1995)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. Chapman, V. Tcherepanov, C. Upton, J. Gen. Virol. 89, 397–408 (2008)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    E.P. de Villiers, C. Gallardo, M. Arias, M. da Silva, C. Upton, R. Martin, R.P. Bishop, Virology 400, 128–136 (2010)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Aguero, R. Blasco, P.J. Wilkinson, E. Viñuela, Virology 176, 195–204 (1990)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    K.J. Sumption, G. Hutchings, P.J. Wilkinson, L.K. Dixon, J. Gen. Virol. 71, 2331–2340 (1990)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A.D. Bastos, M.-L. Penrith, C. Crucière, J.L. Edrich, G. Hutchings, F. Roger, E. Couacy-Hymann, G.R. Thomson, Arch. Virol. 148, 693–706 (2003)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    B.A. Lubisi, A.D.S. Bastos, R. Dwarka, W. Vosloo, Arch. Virol. 150, 2439–2452 (2005)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    P.M. Irusta, M.V. Borca, G.F. Kutish, Z. Lu, E. Caler, C. Carrillo, D.L. Rock, Virology 220, 20–27 (1996)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    R.J. Nix, C. Gallardo, G. Hutchings, E. Blanco, L.K. Dixon, Arch. Virol. 151, 2475–2494 (2006)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    B.A. Lubisi, A.D. Bastos, R.M. Dwarka, W. Vosloo, Virus Genes 35, 729–735 (2007)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    O.A. Owolodun, A.D. Bastos, J.F. Antiabong, M.E. Ogedengbe, P.S. Ekong, B. Yakubu, Virus Genes 41, 361–368 (2010)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    C.I. Boshoff, A.D. Bastos, L.J. Gerber, W. Vosloo, Vet. Microbiol. 121, 45–47 (2007)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A.D. Bastos, M.-L. Penrith, F. Macome, F. Pinto, G.R. Thomson, Vet. Microbiol. 103, 169–182 (2004)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. Gallardo, D.M. Mwaengo, J.M. Macharia, M. Arias, E.A. Taracha, A. Soler, E. Okoth, E. Martìn, J. Kasiti, R.P. Bishop, Virus Genes 38, 85–95 (2009)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    C. Gallardo, E. Okoth, V. Pelayo, R. Anchuelo, E. Martín, A. Simon, A. Llorente, R. Nieto, A. Soler, R. Martín, M. Arias, R.P. Bishop, J. Gen. Virol. (2010), doi: 10.1099/vir.0.025874-0
  18. 18.
    M. Aguero, J. Fernández, L. Romero, C. Sánchez Mascaraque, M. Arias, J.M. Sánchez-Vizcaino, J. Clin. Microbiol. 41, 4431–4434 (2003)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Kumar, K. Tamura, M. Nei, Brief. Bioinform. 5, 150–163 (2004)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    H. Sun, S.C. Jacobs, G.L. Smith, L.K. Dixon, R.M. Parkhouse, J. Gen. Virol. 76, 1117–1127 (1995)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S.B. Phologane, A.D. Bastos, M.-L. Penrith, Virus Genes 31, 357–360 (2005)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mannelli, S. Sotgia, C. Patta, A. Sartia, P. Madrau, L. Sanna, A. Firinu, A. Laddomada, Prev. Vet. Med. 32, 235–241 (1997)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rolesu, D. Aloi, A. Ghironi, N. Oggiano, A. Oggiano, G. Puggioni, C. Patta, S. Farina, S. Montinaro, Vet. Ital. 43, 463–467 (2007)PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Monica Giammarioli
    • 1
  • Carmina Gallardo
    • 2
  • Annalisa Oggiano
    • 3
  • Carmen Iscaro
    • 1
  • Raquel Nieto
    • 2
  • Claudia Pellegrini
    • 1
  • Silvia Dei Giudici
    • 3
  • Marisa Arias
    • 2
  • Gian Mario De Mia
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Umbria e delle MarchePerugiaItaly
  2. 2.Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal (CISA-INIA)MadridSpain
  3. 3.Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della SardegnaSassariItaly

Personalised recommendations