Virus Genes

, 40:28 | Cite as

Identification and characterization of a highly virulent triple reassortant H1N1 swine influenza virus in the United States

  • Wenjun Ma
  • Amy L. Vincent
  • Kelly M. Lager
  • Bruce H. Janke
  • Steven C. Henry
  • Raymond R. R. Rowland
  • Richard A. Hesse
  • Jürgen A. Richt


A highly virulent H1N1 influenza A virus, A/Swine/Kansas/77778/2007 (KS07), which caused approximately 10% mortality in finishing pigs, was isolated from herds in the Midwestern United States. Molecular and phylogenic analysis revealed this swine isolate was a triple reassortant virus, similar to an H1N1 virus that infected humans and pigs at an Ohio county fair in August 2007. A pig challenge model was developed to evaluate the pathogenicity and transmission capacity of the KS07 virus. The results confirmed that the KS07 virus is highly virulent in pigs and easily transmitted to sentinel animals. The KS07 virus failed to cross-react with a panel of H1-specific swine sera. Interestingly, the KS07 virus shed for a prolonged period up to 7 days in infected pigs, indicating that this virus can spread efficiently between animals. The highly virulent H1N1 swine influenza virus is further evidence of reassortment among avian, human and swine influenza viruses and justifies the need for continued surveillance of influenza viruses in swine.


Swine Influenza A virus Pathogenesis 


  1. 1.
    R.G. Webster, M. Peiris, H. Chen, Y. Guan, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12, 3–8 (2006)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R.G. Webster, W.J. Bean, O.T. Gorman, T.M. Chambers, Y. Kawaoka, Microbiol. Rev. 56, 152–179 (1992)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    G.A. Landolt, C.W. Olsen, Anim. Health Res. Rev. 8, 1–21 (2007)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    C.W. Olsen, Virus Res. 85, 199–210 (2002)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A.I. Karasin, M.M. Schutten, L.A. Cooper, C.B. Smith, K. Subbarao, G.A. Anderson, S. Carman, C.W. Olsen, Virus Res. 68, 71–85 (2000)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R.J. Webby, S.L. Swenson, S.L. Krauss, P.J. Gerrish, S.M. Goyal, R.G. Webster, J. Virol. 74, 8243–8251 (2000)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    N.N. Zhou, D.A. Senne, J.S. Landgraf, S.L. Swenson, G. Erickson, K. Rossow, L. Liu, K. Yoon, S. Krauss, R.G. Webster, J. Virol. 73, 8851–8856 (1999)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    W. Ma, R.E. Kahn, J.A. Richt, J. Mol. Genet. Med. 3, 158–166 (2009)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A.L. Vincent, W. Ma, K.M. Lager, B.H. Janke, J.A. Richt, Adv. Virus Res. 72, 127–154 (2008)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A.I. Karasin, J. Landgraf, S. Swenson, G. Erickson, S. Goyal, M. Woodruff, G. Scherba, G. Anderson, C.W. Olsen, J. Clin. Microbiol. 40, 1073–1079 (2002)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    R.J. Webby, K. Rossow, G. Erickson, Y. Sims, R. Webster, Virus Res. 103, 67–73 (2004)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    W. Ma, M. Gramer, K. Rossow, K.J. Yoon, J. Virol. 80, 5092–5096 (2006)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. Lekcharoensuk, K.M. Lager, R. Vemulapalli, M. Woodruff, A.L. Vincent, J.A. Richt, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12, 787–794 (2006)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    R.J. Garten, C.T. Davis, C.A. Russell, B. Shu, S. Lindstrom, A. Balish, W.M. Sessions, X. Xu, E. Skepner, V. Deyde, M. Okomo-Adhiambo, L. Gubareva, J. Barnes, C.B. Smith, S.L. Emery, M.J. Hillman, P. Rivailler, J. Smagala, M. de Graaf, D.F. Burke, R.A. Fouchier, C. Pappas, C.M. Alpuche-Aranda, H. Lopez-Gatell, H. Olivera, I. Lopez, C.A. Myers, D. Faix, P.J. Blair, C. Yu, K.M. Keene, P.D. Dotson, Jr., D. Boxrud, A.R. Sambol, S.H. Abid, K. St George, T. Bannerman, A.L. Moore, D.J. Stringer, P. Blevins, G.J. Demmler-Harrison, M. Ginsberg, P. Kriner, S. Waterman, S. Smole, H.F. Guevara, E.A. Belongia, P.A. Clark, S.T. Beatrice, R. Donis, J. Katz, L. Finelli, C.B. Bridges, M. Shaw, D.B. Jernigan, T.M. Uyeki, D.J. Smith, A.I. Klimov, N.J. Cox, Science 325, 197–201 (2009)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    G.J. Smith, D. Vijaykrishna, J. Bahl, S.J. Lycett, M. Worobey, O.G. Pybus, S.K. Ma, C.L. Cheung, J. Raghwani, S. Bhatt, J.S. Peiris, Y. Guan, A. Rambaut, Nature 459, 1122–1125 (2009)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
    A.L. Vincent, S.L. Swenson, K.M. Lager, P.C. Gauger, C. Loiacono, Y. Zhang, Vet. Microbiol. 137, 51–59 (2009)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    D.F.C.M. Palmer, W.R. Dowdle, G.C. Schild, Advanced Laboratory Techniques for Influenza Diagnosis (U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, D.C., 1975)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    E. Hoffmann, J. Stech, Y. Guan, R.G. Webster, D.R. Perez, Arch. Virol. 146, 2275–2289 (2001)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    K. Tamura, J. Dudley, M. Nei, S. Kumar, Mol. Biol. Evol. 24, 1596–1599 (2007)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J.A. Richt, K.M. Lager, B.H. Janke, R.D. Woods, R.G. Webster, R.J. Webby, J. Clin. Microbiol. 41, 3198–3205 (2003)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. Kitikoon, D. Nilubol, B.J. Erickson, B.H. Janke, T.C. Hoover, S.A. Sornsen, E.L. Thacker, Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 112, 117–128 (2006)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    L. Reed, H. Muench, Am. J. Hyg. 27, 493–497 (1938)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    W. Ma, A.L. Vincent, M.R. Gramer, C.B. Brockwell, K.M. Lager, B.H. Janke, P.C. Gauger, D.P. Patnayak, R.J. Webby, J.A. Richt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 20949–20954 (2007)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A.L. Vincent, K.M. Lager, W. Ma, P. Lekcharoensuk, M.R. Gramer, C. Loiacono, J.A. Richt, Vet. Microbiol. 118, 212–222 (2006)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A.L. Vincent, W. Ma, K.M. Lager, M.R. Gramer, J.A. Richt, B.H. Janke, Virus Genes (2009). doi:10.1007/s11262-009-0386-6
  27. 27.
    M. Matrosovich, A. Tuzikov, N. Bovin, A. Gambaryan, A. Klimov, M.R. Castrucci, I. Donatelli, Y. Kawaoka, J. Virol. 74, 8502–8512 (2000)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    E.K. Subbarao, W. London, B.R. Murphy, J. Virol. 67, 1761–1764 (1993)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    T. Ito, J.N. Couceiro, S. Kelm, L.G. Baum, S. Krauss, M.R. Castrucci, I. Donatelli, H. Kida, J.C. Paulson, R.G. Webster, Y. Kawaoka, J. Virol. 72, 7367–7373 (1998)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    K.P. Myers, C.W. Olsen, G.C. Gray, Clin. Infect. Dis. 44, 1084–1088 (2007)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    K. Van Reeth, Vet. Res. 38, 243–260 (2007)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    A.I. Karasin, S. Carman, C.W. Olsen, J. Clin. Microbiol. 44, 1123–1126 (2006)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    A.I. Karasin, K. West, S. Carman, C.W. Olsen, J. Clin. Microbiol. 42, 4349–4354 (2004)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    C.W. Olsen, A. Karasin, G. Erickson, Virus Res. 93, 115–121 (2003)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    C.W. Olsen, A.I. Karasin, S. Carman, Y. Li, N. Bastien, D. Ojkic, D. Alves, G. Charbonneau, B.M. Henning, D.E. Low, L. Burton, G. Broukhanski, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12, 1132–1135 (2006)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    H. Yu, G.H. Zhang, R.H. Hua, Q. Zhang, T.Q. Liu, M. Liao, G.Z. Tong, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 356, 91–96 (2007)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    W. Ma, K.M. Lager, A.L. Vincent, B.H. Janke, M.R. Gramer, J.A. Richt, Zoonoses Public Health (2009)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
  40. 40.
  41. 41.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wenjun Ma
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Amy L. Vincent
    • 1
  • Kelly M. Lager
    • 1
  • Bruce H. Janke
    • 3
  • Steven C. Henry
    • 4
  • Raymond R. R. Rowland
    • 2
  • Richard A. Hesse
    • 2
  • Jürgen A. Richt
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock Research UnitNational Animal Disease Center, USDA, Agricultural Research ServiceAmesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Diagnostic Medicine/PathobiologyCollege of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State UniversityManhattanUSA
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal MedicineCollege of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  4. 4.Abilene Animal Hospital PAAbileneUSA

Personalised recommendations