Comparative analysis of the large fragment of the 5′ untranslated region (LF-5′ UTR) of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease virus field isolates from India
- 111 Downloads
India is endemic for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and in recent years a unique group within serotype A, carrying a codon deletion at an antigenically critical site in capsid protein VP3 has emerged (VP359-deletion group). This tempted us to analyze the noncoding region, which is an under represented area, though critically associated with virus biology and pathogenesis. Analysis of the large fragment of 5′ untranslated region (LF-5′ UTR) of type A FMD virus revealed discrepancy in the overall tree topology between LF-5′ UTR and 1D region possibly due to independent evolution of coding and noncoding regions. The VP359-deletion group maintained its phylogenetic distinctness even at the LF-5′ UTR. Eighteen lineage specific signatures detected here support independent evolutionary paths for the lineages. Extensive deletions of 45 and 89 nucleotides corresponding to the pseudoknot region were noticed. Conservation pattern in the ‘A253AACA’ motif in the cre/bus stem-loop indicates the importance of first three ‘A’ residues in VPg uridylylation. Of the three polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) binding sites mapped on the internal ribosome entry site (IRES), the pyrimidine tract (Py tract) in the loop of domain 2 was found to be maximally conserved and it might be the major PTB binding site. Strikingly, a deletion group lineage specific transversion was noticed in the Py tract at the 3′ end of IRES without significantly affecting its in vitro infectious titer. Hence, we presume that for efficient cap-independent viral translation, either a minimum number of pyrimidine residues rather than a complete Py tract or a Py tract tolerating transversions only at specific locations and a core motif ‘CUUU’ within the Py tract is essential.
KeywordsFMD virus Serotype A LF-5′ UTR Comparative analysis
This work was supported by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research. We sincerely thank all the past and continuing scientists of PD on FMD who have been instrumental in maintaining the National FMD Virus Repository. Efforts of Dr G. K. Sharma in formatting the references is appreciated.
- 19.C.E. Malnou, T.A. Poyry, R.J. Jackson, K.M. Kean, J. Virol. 76, 10617–10626 (2002). doi: https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.76.21.10617-10626.2002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.N.J. Knowles, A.R. Samuel, in Rpt. Sess. Res. Gp. Stand. Tech. Comm. Eur. Comm. Control of FMD (FAO), Vienna, Austria, September 1994, p. 45–53 (1995)Google Scholar
- 24.N. Saitou, M. Nei, Mol. Biol. 4, 406–425 (1987)Google Scholar
- 25.P.H.A. Sneath, R.R. Sokal, Numerical Taxonomy (Freeman, San Francisco, 1973)Google Scholar
- 29.S.C. Ray, SimPlot for Windows 95, version 2.5 (1999), www.med.jhu.edu/deptmed/sray/download. Accessed 15 Nov 2008.
- 56.Y. Kaku, L.S. Chard, T. Inoue, G.J. Belsham, J. Virol. 76, 11721–11728 (2002). doi: https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.76.22.11721-11728.2002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 58.G.J. Belsham, R.J. Jackson, in Translational Control of Gene Expression, ed. by N. Sonenberg, J.W.B. Hershey, M.B. Mathews (Cold Spring Harbor, New York, 2000), pp. 869–900Google Scholar