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Virus Genes

, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 144–152 | Cite as

Phylogenic analysis of the M genes of influenza viruses isolated from free-flying water birds from their Northern Territory to Hokkaido, Japan

  • Rashid Manzoor
  • Yoshihiro Sakoda
  • Aaron Mweene
  • Yoshimi Tsuda
  • Noriko Kishida
  • Gui-Rong Bai
  • Ken-Ichiro Kameyama
  • Norikazu Isoda
  • Kosuke Soda
  • Michiko Naito
  • Hiroshi KidaEmail author
Article

Abstract

During 2000–2007, 218 influenza viruses of 28 different combinations of HA (H1–H13) and NA (N1–N9) subtypes were isolated from fecal samples of free-flying water birds at two distant lakes in Hokkaido, Japan. Phylogenic analysis of the matrix (M) genes of 67 strains, selected on the basis of their subtype combinations, revealed that A/duck/Hokkaido/W95/2006 (H10N8) was a reassortant whose M gene belonged to North American non-gull-avian and the other seven genes to Eurasian non-gull-avian lineages. The M genes of other 65 strains belonged to Eurasian non-gull-avian and the one to Eurasian-gull lineages. The M genes of 65 strains were grouped into three different sublineages, indicating that influenza viruses circulating in different populations of free-flying water birds have evolved independently in nature.

Keywords

Free-flying water birds Influenza virus M gene Phylogenetic analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful for the cooperation of Mr. Y. Yoshida, In-charge Wakkanai bird house, for facilitating the sample collection at Lake Ohnuma, Wakkanai, Japan. We also gratefully acknowledge the excellent technical support of Ms. H. Shibuya, Ms. H. Yoshida, Ms. M. Ushioda, Mrs. S. Onishi and excellent and continual assistance of our laboratory staff members. The present work is supported by the Program of Founding Research Centers for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan. R.Manzoor was supported by a scholarship from the MEXT.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rashid Manzoor
    • 1
  • Yoshihiro Sakoda
    • 1
  • Aaron Mweene
    • 1
  • Yoshimi Tsuda
    • 1
  • Noriko Kishida
    • 1
  • Gui-Rong Bai
    • 1
  • Ken-Ichiro Kameyama
    • 1
  • Norikazu Isoda
    • 1
  • Kosuke Soda
    • 1
  • Michiko Naito
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Kida
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Disease Control, Laboratory of Microbiology, Graduate School of Veterinary MedicineHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  2. 2.Research Center for Zoonosis ControlHokkaido UniversityHokkaidoJapan

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