Phylogenic analysis of the M genes of influenza viruses isolated from free-flying water birds from their Northern Territory to Hokkaido, Japan
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During 2000–2007, 218 influenza viruses of 28 different combinations of HA (H1–H13) and NA (N1–N9) subtypes were isolated from fecal samples of free-flying water birds at two distant lakes in Hokkaido, Japan. Phylogenic analysis of the matrix (M) genes of 67 strains, selected on the basis of their subtype combinations, revealed that A/duck/Hokkaido/W95/2006 (H10N8) was a reassortant whose M gene belonged to North American non-gull-avian and the other seven genes to Eurasian non-gull-avian lineages. The M genes of other 65 strains belonged to Eurasian non-gull-avian and the one to Eurasian-gull lineages. The M genes of 65 strains were grouped into three different sublineages, indicating that influenza viruses circulating in different populations of free-flying water birds have evolved independently in nature.
KeywordsFree-flying water birds Influenza virus M gene Phylogenetic analysis
We are grateful for the cooperation of Mr. Y. Yoshida, In-charge Wakkanai bird house, for facilitating the sample collection at Lake Ohnuma, Wakkanai, Japan. We also gratefully acknowledge the excellent technical support of Ms. H. Shibuya, Ms. H. Yoshida, Ms. M. Ushioda, Mrs. S. Onishi and excellent and continual assistance of our laboratory staff members. The present work is supported by the Program of Founding Research Centers for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan. R.Manzoor was supported by a scholarship from the MEXT.
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