Veterinary Research Communications

, Volume 43, Issue 4, pp 261–269 | Cite as

Differential expression of endometrial toll-like receptors (TLRs) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) with endometritis

  • Nitish Singh Kharayat
  • Chethan Sharma G
  • Gandham Ravi Kumar
  • Deepika Bisht
  • Gangaram Chaudhary
  • Sanjay Kumar Singh
  • Gautum Kumar Das
  • Anil Kumar Garg
  • Harendra Kumar
  • Narayanan KrishnaswamyEmail author
Short Communication


Toll like receptors (TLRs) and β-defensins expressed in the endometrium are part of the innate uterine defense mechanism (UDM). In the present study, transcriptional profile of TLRs (1–3, 6–8, 10, and) and β-defensins such as lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) and bovine neutrophil beta-defensin 4 (BNBD4) were studied. Bubaline genitalia were collected from abattoir and the endometrium was categorized into one of the following seven groups (n = 7/group) based on cyclicity and endometritis: follicular non-endometritis (FNE), luteal non-endometritis (LNE), follicular cytological endometritis (FCE), luteal cytological endometritis (LCE), follicular purulent endometritis (FPE), luteal purulent endometritis (LPE) and acyclic non-endometritis (ANE). Cytological endometritis (CE) was diagnosed by uterine cytology while purulent endometritis (PE) was diagnosed by the presence of purulent or mucopurulent exudate in the uterine lumen. Real time PCR was performed and the relative fold change was analysed. TLR1 and BNBD4 transcripts were not found in the buffalo endometrium. Of all the innate immune genes studied, upregulation of TLR and β-defensins was mostly contributed by the inflammatory status of endometrium. Further, there was a prominent upregulation of TAP in buffaloes with endometritis. However, no association could be found between the inflammatory status of the endometrium and phase of estrous cycle with respect to the expression of TLRs and β-defensins.


Buffalo Toll like receptors (TLRs) β-Defensins Uterine infection mRNA expression 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

We declare that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nitish Singh Kharayat
    • 1
  • Chethan Sharma G
    • 1
  • Gandham Ravi Kumar
    • 2
  • Deepika Bisht
    • 2
  • Gangaram Chaudhary
    • 1
  • Sanjay Kumar Singh
    • 1
  • Gautum Kumar Das
    • 1
  • Anil Kumar Garg
    • 3
  • Harendra Kumar
    • 1
  • Narayanan Krishnaswamy
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Animal ReproductionICAR-Indian Veterinary Research InstituteBareillyIndia
  2. 2.Division of Animal BiotechnologyICAR- Indian Veterinary Research InstituteBareillyIndia
  3. 3.Division of Animal NutritionICAR- Indian Veterinary Research InstituteBareillyIndia

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