Formation of NET, phagocytic activity, surface architecture, apoptosis and expression of toll like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) in neutrophils of mastitic cows
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Neutrophils employ both oxidative and non oxidative mechanisms to destroy pathogens. Function of neutrophils coming in milk during mammary invasion is not clearly understood in dairy animals. Therefore, the present study was designed in 36 Sahiwal cows to see the changes occurring in the neutrophil activity of cows suffering from subclinical (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CM). Cows were divided into three groups as healthy (n = 12), SCM (n = 12) and CM (n = 12) groups on the basis of CMT scoring, gross morphological changes in milk, bacteriological examination of milk and by counting milk SCC. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher milk SCC, neutrophil percent and significantly (P < 0.05) lower viability of both blood and milk neutrophils were observed in CM group of cows as compared to SCM and control group of cows. Phagocytic activity (PA) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in milk neutrophils of SCM and CM cows as compared to control cows. Toll like receptors 2 and 4 in blood and milk neutrophils were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) higher, whereas, apoptosis in terms of altered mitochondrial transmembrane potential, Caspase 3 and 7 activities were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower in CM cows. Alterations in surface architecture of neutrophils in terms of formation of pseudopods was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and found to be higher in CM cows. Blood neutrophils were found to be spherical as compared to milk neutrophils. Formation of neutrophil extracellular trap (NETs) were found milk neutrophils of CM cows, whereas, SCM and healthy cows did not exhibit NET formation. The study indicated a positive correlation between lower neutrophil apoptosis and higher expression of TLR2 and TLR4 with the formation of NETs and change in surface architecture. Formation of NET like structures seemed to be an effective mode of defense employed by neutrophils of cows suffering from clinical mastitis.
KeywordsNeutrophils Apoptosis TLR2 TLR4 NET Mastitis Cows
The authors are thankful to Dr. V.V. Ramamurthy, Dept of Entomology, IARI, New Delhi for helping to carry out SEM of blood and milk neutrophils. We are also thankful to Dr. Sandhya Toki, PGI Chandigarh, for assisting in carrying out the flow cytometry. We are highly thankful to Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, India (BT/PR13016/AAQ/01/411/2009) for providing financial support to carry out this study.
Conflict of Interest Statement
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest
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