Evaluation of the effectiveness of Duddingtonia flagrans and Monacrosporium thaumasium in the biological control of gastrointestinal nematodes in female bovines bred in the semiarid region
Brazil has a herd of 212 million cattle and 171 million hectares of pastures that produce approximately 96 % of Brazilian beef. The Brazilian production system enables animal infection by endoparasites, which are considered one of the main obstacles for the development of this industry and are responsible for considerable economic losses. The control of parasitic diseases is performed via the administration of antiparasitic drugs, but they leave residues of the products in the treated animal, affect non-target organisms and select resistant strains of the parasites. The species D. flagrans and M. thaumasium are promising and sustainable alternatives for controlling gastrointestinal helminths of ruminants and other herbivores. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of isolates of these species, formulated in a sodium alginate matrix and administered twice a week, to reduce the number of environmental infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes that affect prepubescent zebu females. The treated animals presented fewer eggs and a lower number of infective larvae per gram of faeces (p < 0.05). The pastures occupied by treated animals showed a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) of the number of L3 and, furthermore, the genera Cooperia sp., Haemonchus sp., and Oesophagostomum sp. were the most prevalent. The average weight of the animals did not differ statistically (p > 0.05) among the treated and control groups. The use of sodium alginate pellets as vehicle for delivery of the fungus mycelia D. flagrans (isolate AC001) and M. thaumasium (isolate NF34A) proved effective in controlling trichostrongylids in prepubescent cows bred in the semi-arid region, with an effective reduction in the number of infective larvae in the pastures.
KeywordsParasites Helminths Nematophagous fungus Beef cattle and zebu
We thank FAPEMIG, CAPES and CNPq for their financial support and the owner of the Terra Branca Farm for allowing this experiment.
- Associação Brasileira das Indústrias Exportadoras de Carnes – ABIEC. Estatísticas. Disponível em: <www.abiec.com.br>. Acesso em: 10/07/2013
- Amarante AFT (2009) Nematoides gastrintestinais em ovinos. In: Cavalcante AC, Vieira LS, Chagas ACS, Molento MB (eds) Doenças parasitárias de caprinos e ovinos epidemiologia e controle. Brasília, Embrapa Informação Tecnológica, pp 17–62Google Scholar
- ANUALPEC (2012) Anuário da pecuária brasileira. São Paulo: FNP Consultoria e Comércio, 2012. 378 pGoogle Scholar
- Assis RCL, Luns FD, Araújo JV, Braga FR, Assis RL, Marcelino JL, Freitas PC, Andrade MAS (2013) Comparison between the action of nematode predatory fungi Duddingtonia flagrans and Monacrosporium thaumasium in the biological control of bovine gastrointestinal nematodiasis in tropical southeastern Brazil. Vet Parasitol 193:134–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Braga FR, Araújo JV, Campos AK, Siva AR, Araujo JM, Carvalho RO, Correa DN, Pereira CAJ (2008) In vitro evaluation of the effect of the nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium sinense and Pochonia chlamydosporia on Schistosoma mansoni eggs. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 24:2713–2716Google Scholar
- Dhingra OD, Sinclair JB (1995) Basic plant pathology methods, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- Fortes, F. S., Pondelek, D. A. S. & Bier, D. (211) Nematoides gastrintestinais. pp. 13–16 in Chagas, A. C. S., Niciura, S. C. M. & Molento, M. B. (Eds) Manual Ptrático: Metodologias de diagnóstico da resistência e de detecção de substâncias ativas em parasitas de ruminantes. Brasília, Embrapa Informação Tecnológica.Google Scholar
- Freitas, M. G. (1982) Helmintologia Veterinária, 6edº. Belo HorizonteGoogle Scholar
- Mendoza-de-Gives P, Torres-Acosta F (2012) Biotechnological use of fungi in the control of ruminant parasitic nematodes. In: Arias MS, Paz-Silva A (eds) Fungi: types, environmental impact and role in disease. Nova Editorial, New York, pp 389–408Google Scholar
- Ojeda-Robertos NF, Torres-Acosta JFJ, Aguilar-Caballero AJ, Ayala-Burgos A, Cob-Galera LA, Sandoval-Castro CA, Barrientos-Medina RC, Mendoza-de-Gives P (2008) Assessing the efficacy of Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores per gram of faeces to control Haemonchus contortus larvae. Vet Parasitol 158:329–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Walker HL, Connick WJ (1983) Sodium alginate for production and formulation of mycoherbicides. Weed Sci 31:333–338Google Scholar