Veterinary Research Communications

, Volume 36, Issue 2, pp 139–148 | Cite as

Isolation, culture and chondrogenic differentiation of canine adipose tissue- and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells–a comparative study

  • Christine M. ReichEmail author
  • Oksana Raabe
  • Sabine Wenisch
  • Philip S. Bridger
  • Martin Kramer
  • Stefan Arnhold
Original Article


In the dog, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to reside in the bone marrow (bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: BM-MSCs) as well as in the adipose tissue (adipose tissue-derived stem cells: ADSCs). Potential application fields for these multipotent MSCs in small animal practice are joint diseases as MSCs of both sources have shown to possess chondrogenic differentiation ability. However, it is not clear whether the chondrogenic differentiation potential of cells of these two distinct tissues is truly equal. Therefore, we compared MSCs of both origins in this study in terms of their chondrogenic differentiation ability and suitability for clinical application. BM-MSCs harvested from the femoral neck and ADSCs from intra-abdominal fat tissue were examined for their morphology, population doubling time (PDT) and CD90 surface antigen expression. RT-PCR served to assess expression of pluripotency marker Oct4 and early differentiation marker genes. Chondrogenic differentiation ability was compared and validated using histochemistry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and quantitative RT-PCR. Both cell populations presented a highly similar morphology and marker expression in an undifferentiated stage except that freshly isolated ADSCs demonstrated a significantly faster PDT than BM-MSCs. In contrast, BM-MSCs revealed a morphological superior cartilage formation by the production of a more abundant and structured hyaline matrix and higher expression of lineage specific genes under the applied standard differentiation protocol. However, further investigations are necessary in order to find out if chondrogenic differentiation can be improved in canine ADSCs using different protocols and/or supplements.


Dog Mesenchymal stem cells Chondrogenic differentiation Cartilage Osteoarthritis 


Conflict of interest

None of the authors of this paper has a financial or personal relationship with other people or organisations that could inappropriately influence or bias the content of the paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christine M. Reich
    • 1
    Email author
  • Oksana Raabe
    • 1
  • Sabine Wenisch
    • 1
  • Philip S. Bridger
    • 2
  • Martin Kramer
    • 3
  • Stefan Arnhold
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineJustus-Liebig-University GiessenGiessenGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Hygiene and Infectious Diseases of Animals, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineJustus-Liebig-University GiessenGiessenGermany
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Small Animal Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineJustus-Liebig-University GiessenGiessenGermany

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