Acute kidney injury mediated by oxidative stress in Egyptian horses with exertional rhabdomyolysis
- 366 Downloads
The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiologic process of acute renal failure associated with exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) in Egyptian horses. ER was tentatively diagnosed in 31 Baladi horses based on case history, physical examination findings and confirmed by elevation of plasma creatine kinase (CK) and urine myoglobin concentrations. According to severity of the condition, the diseased horses were categorized into two main groups; the first group included 18 horses with minimal clinical signs and plasma CK <60 000 IU/L; whereas, the second group included 13 horses with overt clinical signs and plasma CK >100 000 IU/L). It was found that plasma creatol (CTL) was positively correlated (p < 0.01) with plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) (r = 0.775), nitric oxide (NO) (r = 0.768), methyguanididne (MG) (r = 0.995), CK (r = 0.768), urine glucose (r = 0.778), urine protein (r = 0.767), renal failure index (RFI) (r = 0.814) and urine sodium (r = 0.799) and negatively correlated (p < 0.01) with total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (r = −0.795), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (r = −0.815), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (r = −0.675), Vitamin C (r = −0.830), urine creatinine (r = −0.800), urine/plasma creatinine ratio (r = −0.827) and urine/plasma urea ratio (r = −0.807). The correlation between these biochemical variables might suggest a possible role of oxidative stress in renal injury associated with severe rhabdomyolysis in horses. It is suggested that exaggeration of oxidative stress associated with increased muscle membrane leakage plays a key role in acute kidney injury in Baladi horses with severe rhabdomyolysis.
KeywordsKidney injury Horses Oxidative stress Exertional rhabdomyolysis
Conflict of interest statement
The author of this paper has no financial or personal relationship with other people or organizations that could appropriately influence or bias the content of the paper.
- Carlström B (1932) Über die Ätiologie und Pathogenese der Kreuzlähmung des Pferdes (Hämoglobinämia paralytica) Skan. Arch Physiol 63:164–169Google Scholar
- DeWitt J, Lamprech E, Williams C (2007) Nitric oxide concentration in plasma and synovial fluid of intensely exercising horses. Equine Sci Soc Proc 20:64–65Google Scholar
- Hargreaves B, Kronfeld D, Waldron J, Lopes M, Gay L, Saker K, Cooper W, Sklan D, Harris P (2002) Antioxidant status of horses during two 80-km endurance races. J Nutr 132:1781–1783Google Scholar
- Hutyra F, Marek J (1926) Diseases of the blood and blood-producing organs: paralytic hemoglobinemia. In: Mohler JR, Eichhorn A (eds) Special pathology and therapeutics of the diseases of domestic animals, first ed., Diseases of the urinary organs, blood and blood producing organs, spleen, metabolism, nervous system, organs of locomotion, and skin, vol III. Alexander Eger, Chicago, pp 146–162Google Scholar
- Kinnunen S, Atalay M, Hyyppä S, Lehmuskero A, Hänninen O, Oksala N (2005) Effects of prolonged exercise on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in endurance horse. JSSM 4:415–421Google Scholar
- Stadhouders AM (1981) Cellular calcium homeostasis. mitochondria and muscle cell disease. In: Busch HFM, Jennekens FG, Scholte HR (eds) Mitochondria and muscular diseases., pp 77–88Google Scholar
- Valentine B, Divers T, Lavoie J (1996) Severe equine polysaccharide storage myopathy in draft horses: clinical signs and response to dietary therapy. Proceedings Am Assoc Equine Pract 42:294–295Google Scholar