Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Investigation of Immunmodulatory effects of levamisole and vitamin E on Immunity and some blood parameters in newborn Jersey calves

  • 231 Accesses

  • 9 Citations


The immunmodulatory effects of dl-α tocopherol (vitamin E) and levamisole on the immune system and some blood parameters of newborn Jersey calves were investigated with the present study. Treatment groups 1, 2 and 3 were injected 13,3 ml isotonic saline solution (0,9% NaCl), 3 mg/kg levamisole HCl and 2000 IU vitamin E weekly, starting at birth until the age of two weeks. Average serum IgM levels of the control, levamisole and vitamin E calves were 111,7 ± 9,3 mg/100 ml, 251,9 ± 27,6 mg/100 ml, 202,2 ± 43,3 mg/100 ml respectively on day 22. Average serum IgG levels of the levamisole and vitamin E groups elevated, compared to the control group on days 1, 8, 15 and 22. However, there were stastistically differences in treatment and control groups for serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride and cortisol values and whole blood counts. All differences were in the reference ranges. Levamisole and vitamin E could be used as an alternative way for their beneficial effects such as improving the humoral immune responses of calves and their safety and practical use against the neonatal period infections in the field.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Anderson J C (1984) Levamisole and bovine mastitis. Vet Rec 114(6):138–140

  2. Asif M M, Zia-ul-Rahman Z, Naqvi Z H (1995) Effect of levamisole administered orally on hematological and biochemical profiles of Sahiwal heifers. Vet Arch 65:185–192

  3. Blecha F (2001) Immunomodulators for prevention and treatment of infectious diseases in food-producing animals. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 17(3):621–633

  4. Brignole T J, Stott G H (1980) Effect of suckling followed by bottle feeding colostrum on immunoglobulin absorption and calf survival. J Dairy Sci 63:451

  5. Bryson D G, Mcferran J B, Ball H J et al (1987) Observation on outbreaks of respiratory disease in housed calves (1) Epidemiological findings. Vet Rec 103:485–489

  6. Burton J L, Kennedy B W, Burnside E B et al (1989) Variation in Serum Concentrations of Immunoglobulins G, A, and M in Canadian Holstein-Friesian Calves. J Dairy Sci 72:135–149

  7. Carter J N, Gill D R, Krehbiel C R et al (2005) Vitamin Esupplementation of newly arrived feedlot calves. J Anim Sci 83:1924–1932

  8. Cipriano J E, Morrill J L, Anderson N V (1982) Effect of dietary vitamin E on immune responses of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 65:2357

  9. Corbeil L B, Watt B, Corbeil R R et al (1985) Immunoglobulin concentrations in serum and nasal secretions of calves at the onset of pneumonia. Am J Vet Res 45:773

  10. Eicher-Pruett S D, Morrill J L, Blecha F et al (1992) Neutrophil and lymphocyte response to supplementation with vitamins C and E in young calves. J Dairy Sci 75:1635–1642

  11. Goranov K, Bonovska M (1987) Effect of levamisole on the cytochemical function of leukocytes and on blood lysozyme in sheep. Vet Med Nauki 24:72–76

  12. Hidiroglou M, Batra T R, Laflamme L F et al (1992) Possible Roles of Vitamin E in Immune Response of Calves. Internat J Vit Nutr Res 62:308–311

  13. Hogan J S, Weiss W P, Todhunter D A et al (1992) Bovine neutrophil responses to parenteral vitamin E. J Dairy Sci 75:399

  14. John P W M (1971) Statistical Design and Analysis of Experiments. Macmillan, New York

  15. Kurz M M, Willett L B (1991) Carbohydrate, Enzyme, and Hematology Dynamics in Newborn Calves. J Dairy Sci 74:2109–2118

  16. Mohri M, Seifi H A, Zamani Sani S H (2005) Effects of oral administration of levamisole on non-specific immunity, serum proteins and health in normal colostrum-fed neonatal dairy calves. Comp Clin Path 13:132–136 doi:10.1007/s00580-004-0528-0

  17. Nagahata H, Kojima N, Higashitani I et al (1991) Postnatal changes in lymphocyte function of dairy calves. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B; 38(1):49–54

  18. Politis I, Hidiroglou M, Batra T R et al (1995) Effects of vitamin E on immune function of dairy cows. Am J Vet Res 56(2):179–184

  19. Reddy P G, Morrill J L, Minocha H C et al (1986) Effect of supplemental Vitamin E on the immune system of calves. J Dairy Sci 69:164

  20. Reddy P G, Morrill J L, Frey R A et al (1987) Vitamin E requirements of dairy calves. J Dairy Sci 70:123

  21. Roy J H B (1980) Factors affecting susceptibility of calves to disease. J Dairy Sci 63:650–664

  22. Sheffy B E, Schultz R D (1979) Influence of vitamin E and selenium on immune response mechanisms. Fed Proc 38:2139

  23. Stogause A, King M G (1995) Is oral levamisole immunostimulation in rats mediated by reduced levels of free plasma corticosterone? Int J Immunopharmacol 17:635–640 doi:10.1016/0192-0561(95)00049-8

  24. Symoens J, Rosenthal M (1977) Levamisole in the modulation of the immune response: the current experimental and clinical state. J Reticuloendothel Soc 21:175–221

  25. Tengerdy R P (1980) Disease Resistance: Immune response. In: Vitamin E: A comprehensive treatise, L.J., Machlin, (Ed.), Marcel Dekker Inc., USA, New York, pp 429

  26. Zia-ul-Rahman Z, Sandhu M A, Ahmad T (2003) Haematological and serum biochemical profiles of buffalo heifers as influenced by levamisole. Comp Clin Pathol 12:147–150 doi:10.1007/s00580-003-0490-2

Download references


This study was undertaken in The Directorship of Samsun Karaköy Agricultural Enterprises with the grate permission of the Chief Dr. Ahmet Cıra. The authors appreciate the valuable help of Filiz Akdag for statistical analysis of the data and Ertan Emek Onuk for the ELISA analysis of the samples and our Department chief Yucel Meral for his general support. The authors also wish to thank to Gokmen Zafer Pekmezci and Guvenc Gokalp for their technical assistance and Adem Usta for his general support. We are also grateful to the staff of The Directorship of Samsun Karaköy Agricultural Enterprises for the care and handling of calves.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Author information

Correspondence to Didem Pekmezci.

Additional information

This manuscript was preapared from the PhD. Dissertation of Didem Pekmezci.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Pekmezci, D., Cakiroglu, D. Investigation of Immunmodulatory effects of levamisole and vitamin E on Immunity and some blood parameters in newborn Jersey calves. Vet Res Commun 33, 711–721 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11259-009-9220-9

Download citation


  • Levamisole
  • Vitamin E
  • Immunmodulatory
  • Newborn
  • Jersey calf