Detailed description of the brain size, rhinencephalon and hippocampal formation of the Bactrian camel is presented in our study. The brain weight of the Bactrian camel is 626 g averagely, and the encephalization quotient (EQ) value 1.3, indicating a high level of intelligence. The rhinencephalon is mature and well developed, accordant with the good olfactory sense. The hippocampus is relatively large, concomitant with the good ability of spatial memory. These anatomical features agree with the corresponding adaptive behaviors of the Bactrian camel and provide a morphological evidence of the camel to adapt to the acrid and semi- acrid environment.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Adamek G D, Shipley M T, Sanders M S (1984) The indusium griseum in the mouse: architecture, Timm’s histochemistry and some afferent connections. Brain Res Bull 12(6):657–68 doi:10.1016/0361–9230(84)90147–3
Basil J A, Kamil A C, Balda R P, et al (1996) Differences in hippocampal volume among food storing corvids. Brain Behav Evol 47: 156–164 doi:10.1159/000113235
Chen Q Sh, Wang W H (2002). Morphological features of renal cell related to reabsorption in two- humped camel (in Chinese). Acta Zoologica Sinica 48 (2):245–250
Chess A, Simon I, Cedar H, Axel R (1994) Allelic inactivation regulates olfactory receptor gene expression. Cell 78: 823–834 doi:10.1016/S0092–8674(94)90562–2
Friant M and Hoëst D L (1945) The telencephalon of the camel: its interpretation through the study of a fetal stage. Ann Soc Roy Zool Belgique 75: 95–103
Garamszegi L Z, Eens M (2004) The evolution of hippocampus volume and brain size in relation to food hoarding in birds. Eco Lett 7: 1216–1224 doi:10.1111/j.1461–0248.2004.00685.x
Gordon J A (1966) Elephants do think. Arf Wildl 20: 75–79.
Gust B, Greg L, Fowler C K, Kieser T, Chater K F (2003) PCR-targeted Streptomyces gene replacement identifies a protein domain needed for biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene soil odor geosmin. PNAS 100(4): 1541–1546 doi:10.1073/pnas.0337542100
Hampton R R, Sherry D F, Shettleworth S J, et al (1995) Hippocampal volume and food-storing behavior are related in parids. Brain Behav Evol 45: 54–61 doi:10.1159/000113385
Healy S D, Krebs J R (1992) Food storing and the hippocampus in corvids - amount and volume are correlated. Proc R Soc Lond Ser (B) 248: 241–245
Healy S D, Krebs J R (1996) Food storing and the hippocampus in Paridae. Brain Behav Evol, 47: 195–199 doi:10.1159/000113239
Jerison H J (1970) Gross brain indices and the analysis of rossil endocasts. In: Noback C R, Montagna W (eds) The primate brain. Appleton- Century Crofts Educational Division/ Meredith Corporation, New York, pp: 225–443
Jinno S, Klausberger T, Marton L F (2007) Neuronal diversity in GABAergic long-range projections from the hippocampus. J Neurosci 27(33):8790–804 doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1847–07.2007
Krebs J R, Healy S D, Shettleworth S J (1990) Spatial memory of Paridae: comparison of a storing and a non-storing species, the coal tit, Parus ater, and the great tit, P. major. Anim Behav 39: 1127–1137. doi:10.1016/S0003–3472(05)80785–7
Künzle H (2004)The hippocampal continuation (indusium griseum): its connectivity in the hedgehog tenrec and its status within the hippocampal formation of higher vertebrates. Anat Embryo, 208: 183–213
Martin R D (1990) Primate Origins and Evolution: a phylogenetic Reconstruction. Princeton University Press, Princeton
McClure R C, Dallman M J, Garrett P D (1973) In: Cat Anatomy: an Atlas, Text, and Dissection Guide, Lea and Febiger, Philadephia, PA
McHenry H (1988) New estimates of body weight in early hominids and their significance to encephalization and megadontia in “robust” Autralopithecines. In: Grine, F. (Ed.): Evolutionary History of the “robust” Australopithecines, Gruynter, New York, pp 133–148
New Capital Newspaper (2006) Competition between camel and sheep in camels’ hometown- the Bactrian camel species in Inner Mongolia is seriously endangered (in Chinese). Beijing
Roth G, Dicke U (2005) Evolution of the brain and intelligence. Trends Cog Sci 9(5): 250–257 doi:10.1016/j.tics.2005.03.005
Schwartz H J, Dioli M (1992) The one- humped camel in eastern Africa. Verlag Josef Margraf, Germany, pp 137–140
Shoshani J, Kupsky W J, Marchant G H (2006) Elephant brain part 1: Gross morphology, functions, comparative anatomy, and evolution. Brain Res Bull 70: 124–157 doi:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2006.03.016
Xie Z H and Wang J L (2006) Morphological study on the cerebrum of the Bactrian camel with particular reference to sulci. JCPR 13(1): 61–66
Yuan G Y, Zhang L, Yuan L (2001) A kind of world new species mammal 2000- wild Bactrian camels (in Chinese). Xinjiang juvenile publishing house, China
Zhao X X (1995) Ecophysiology and reproduction of the camel (In Chinese). Gansu Science and Technology Press, China, pp 50–52
Zhu C G (2002) The hippocampal formation, first ed (In Chinese). In: Zhu, C. G. (Ed): Neuroanatomy. People’s health press, pp. 7123–718
We are grateful to Dr. Wenling Ye and Lei Zhu for the collection of specimens, and Jinghong Ma, Xianyan Peng, Hongju Wang and Guoqiang Yuan for their assistance during the perfusion. Our study was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (39300097), and Open Foundation of Chinese Educational Department Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Agroecology.
About this article
Cite this article
Chen, J., Bai, Z., Gao, C. et al. Morphology of Rhinencephalon and Hippocampal formation of the Bactrian Camel (Camelus bactrianus) with their adaptive features. Vet Res Commun 33, 25–32 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11259-008-9068-4
- Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus)
- Hippocampus formation
- Indusium griseum (IG)