Veterinary Research Communications

, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp 477–485 | Cite as

Pharmacokinetics of Tilmicosin (Provitil Powder and Pulmotil Liquid AC) Oral Formulations in Chickens

  • E. A. Abu-Basha
  • N. M. Idkaidek
  • A. F. Al-Shunnaq


A bioavailability and pharmacokinetics study of powder and liquid tilmicosin formulations was carried out in 18 healthy chickens according to a single-dose, two-period, two-sequence, crossover randomized design. The two formulations were Provitil and Pulmotil AC. Both drugs were administered to each chicken after an overnight fast on two treatment days separated by a 2-week washout period. A modified rapid and sensitive HPLC method was used for determination of tilmicosin concentrations in chicken plasma. Various pharmacokinetic parameters including area under plasma concentration–time curve (AUC0−72), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), time to peak concentration (tmax), elimination half-life (t1/2β), elimination rate (kel), clearance (ClB), mean residence time (MRT) and volume of distribution (Vd,area) were determined for both formulations. The average means of AUC0−72 for Provitil and Pulmotil AC were very close (24.24 ± 3.86, 21.82 ± 3.14 (μg.h)/ml, respectively), with no significant differences based on ANOVA. The relative bioavailability of Provitil as compared to Pulmotil AC was 111%. In addition, there were no significant differences in the Cmax  (2.09 ± 0.37, 2.12 ± 0.40 μg/ml), tmax  (3.99 ± 0.84, 5.82 ± 1.04 h), t1/2β (47.4 ± 9.32, 45.0 ± 5.73 h), kel (0.021 ± 0.0037, 0.022 ± 0.0038 h−1), ClB (19.73 ± 3.73, 21.37 ± 4.54 ml/(min/kg)), MRT (71.20 ± 12.87, 67.15 ± 9.01 h) and Vd,area (1024.8 ± 87.5, 1009.8 ± 79.5 ml/kg) between Pulmotil AC and Provitil, respectively. In conclusion, tilmicosin was rapidly absorbed and slowly eliminated after oral administration of single dose of tilmicosin aqueous and powder formulations. Provitil and Pulmotil AC can be used as interchangeable therapeutic agents.


bioavailability chicken HPLC tilmicosin pharmacokinetics 



area under plasma concentration–time curve




maximum plasma concentration


elimination rate


mean residence time


elimination half-life


time to peak concentration


volume of distribution


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. A. Abu-Basha
    • 1
  • N. M. Idkaidek
    • 2
  • A. F. Al-Shunnaq
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineJordan University of Science and TechnologyIrbidJordan
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of PharmacyJordan University of Science and TechnologyIrbidJordan

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