Plant Ecology

, Volume 220, Issue 4–5, pp 457–466 | Cite as

Civet pollination in Mucuna birdwoodiana (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae)

  • Shun KobayashiEmail author
  • Stephan W. Gale
  • Tetsuo Denda
  • Masako Izawa


Inferring pollinators from floral traits is problematic because many flowers do not conform to a prescribed phenotype by which they may be assigned to any one particular pollination ‘syndrome.’ This necessitates empirical investigation to confirm pollinator relationships. Mucuna birdwoodiana is thought to be fruit bat-pollinated on account of its malodorous, pale green, gullet-type flowers, but we sought to clarify its pollination system through direct examination. This study was conducted in Hong Kong. Flowers of this species undergo “explosive opening” during pollination. Bagging experiments were conducted to check the necessity of this mechanism to achieve fruit set. Floral visitors were recorded by video camera traps and nectar secretion patterns were surveyed. Flowers do not open automatically and unopened flowers do not fructify. Masked palm civets, Paguma larvata, and introduced Pallas’s squirrels, Callosciurus erythraeus styani, were observed opening flowers, and fruits were found to form on flowers opened by both species. Paguma larvata opened flowers more frequently and less destructively than C. e. styani. The nectar is sucrose-dominant with no variation in nectar volume nor sugar concentration throughout the day. Pollination success in M. birdwoodiana is dependent on flower-opening animals. The primary pollinator of M. birdwoodiana is P. larvata, not fruit bats as had been suggested by a suite of supposedly adaptive floral traits.


Explosive opening Mucuna Non-flying mammal Paguma larvata Pollination Tropical Asia 



We are grateful to Michael Lau for providing advice and to Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden for allowing us to conduct this study. We also thank Shinichi Gima (Center for Research Advancement and Collaboration, University of the Ryukyus) for running the HPLC analysis. This study was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI (Grant No. 16H05771).

Supplementary material

Electronic supplementary material 1 (MP4 2569 kb) Video S1 Explosive opening behavior of masked palm civet (Paguma larvata) on Mucuna birdwoodiana flowers.

Electronic supplementary material 2 (MP4 9024 kb) Video S2 Explosive opening behavior of Pallas’s squirrel (Callosciurus erythraeus styani) on Mucuna birdwoodiana flowers.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of ScienceUniversity of the RyukyusNishiharaJapan
  2. 2.Kadoorie Farm and Botanic GardenNew TerritoriesChina

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