Plant Ecology

, Volume 217, Issue 1, pp 81–95 | Cite as

Orchid re-introductions: an evaluation of success and ecological considerations using key comparative studies from Australia

  • Noushka Reiter
  • Julie Whitfield
  • Gail Pollard
  • Wendy Bedggood
  • Mary Argall
  • Kingsley Dixon
  • Belinda Davis
  • Nigel Swarts


With global biodiversity in decline, there is now an urgent requirement to take ameliorative action for endangered species in the form of re-introductions. For the highly diverse orchid family, many species face imminent extinction. Successful re-introductions that result in self-sustaining populations require not only an understanding of existing threats, but an in-depth understanding of species ecology. Increasingly, translocations, ranging from re-introductions to assisted colonisation, are being adopted as recovery actions. Do these translocations mitigate threatening processes and account for the two key ecological attributes for orchid survival; pollinator and mycorrhizal presence? Here, we conducted a literature review identifying the known threats to orchid survival and their necessary mitigation strategies. Next, we evaluated the success of 74 published international orchid translocations on 66 species against a consideration of orchid ecological attributes. Lastly, we empirically tested an additional 22 previously unpublished re-introductions on 12 species undertaken since 2007 against a re-introduction process that accounts for identified threats and orchid ecological attributes. We identified habitat destruction, weed invasion, herbivory, illegal collection, pollinator decline, pathogens and climate change as critical threats to orchid survival. In our global review based on published translocations, the average survival rate, 1-year post translocation was 66 % yet only 2.8 % of studies reported natural recruitment in field sites. Although survival of translocated orchids is clearly being achieved, these programmes did not relate orchid growth and development to key ecological requirements of orchid population resilience, pollinator and mycorrhizal ecology. Ensuring pollinator and mycorrhizal presence shows that these two factors alone are key factors influencing survival and persistence in an Australian review of 22 previously unpublished orchid re-introductions. In the Australian review flowering in the year following, out-planting was observed for 81 % of the re-introductions with seed set occurring in 63 % of re-introductions within the length of the study. Recruitment was observed in 18 % of the Australian re-introduced populations indicating a degree of population resilience. As orchid re-introductions will be a major strategy for wild orchid conservation in the future, we present a framework for orchid re-introductions, including criteria for success. We recommend symbiotic propagation and, for specialised pollination syndromes, the study of pollinator interactions prior to site selection and re-introduction of plants.


Re-introduction Orchid Conservation Propagation Mycorrhiza Pollinator 



The authors would like to thank the following people for their part with guidance, assistance in laboratory, field and nursery work for various species mentioned: Rob Cross, Magali Wright, David Pitts, Ash Burns, Geoff Neville, Ryan Phillips, Penelope Amy, Kate Vlcek, Andrew Pritchard, Pauline Rudolph, Ann Lawrie, Australasian Native Orchid Society (Victorian Branch) in particular Richard Thomson, L and J Carrigan, Neil Anderton, Peter Kiernan, Russell Mawson, Andrew Dilley and Mike Wicks for assistance with the plantings. We would also like to thank Parks Victoria and Trust for Nature (and individual landholders) for providing land for these re-introductions, the Australian Network for Plant Conservation, Department of Environment Land Water and Planning, Department of Parks and Wildlife, Wimmera Catchment Management Authority, the Australian Federal Government’s Caring for our Country Program, Australian Orchid Foundation, Portland Aluminium, ALCOA and Griffin Coal for funding the research and re-introduction of many of the orchids presented in this study.

Supplementary material

11258_2015_561_MOESM1_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Table 1 (Supplementary). Review of threatening processes to orchids. Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 13 kb)
11258_2015_561_MOESM2_ESM.docx (29 kb)
Table 2 (Supplementary). Global Review of orchid translocations, comparing survival at last known date, pollination, seed set, recruitment, pollinator and mycorrhizal considerations. Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 29 kb)
11258_2015_561_MOESM3_ESM.docx (19 kb)
Table 3 (Supplementary). Australian review of 22 re-introductions of 12 species from 2007 to 2014 comparing known remaining plants in the wild, re-emergence one year after first dormancy in the field, bench mark site re-emergence the same year as re-introduction re-emergence,  % recruitment as a  % of the number of plants reintroduced and if natural pollination and seed set is occurring in the re-introduced populations. *Population monitoring data by DELWP Grampians. ** Only 3 wild plants are available for monitoring at one site for this species as it virtually no longer exists in the wild. *** No suitable wild site to establish monitoring on (wild site monitoring was initiated in 2012, however monitoring site was vandalized, so monitoring discontinued). Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 18 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Royal Botanic Gardens VictoriaCranbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Amaryllis EnvironmentalBendigoAustralia
  3. 3.Australian Network for Plant ConservationHorshamAustralia
  4. 4.Kings Park and Botanic GardenThe Botanic Gardens and Parks AuthorityWest PerthAustralia
  5. 5.School of Plant BiologyUniversity of Western AustraliaNedlandsAustralia
  6. 6.Department of Environment and AgricultureCurtin UniversityBentleyAustralia
  7. 7.Royal Tasmanian Botanical GardensHobartAustralia
  8. 8.Tasmanian Institute of AgricultureUniversity of TasmaniaSandy BayAustralia

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