Plant Ecology

, Volume 215, Issue 6, pp 639–650 | Cite as

Changes in the potential habitats of 10 dominant evergreen broad-leaved tree species in the Taiwan-Japan archipelago

  • Katsuhiro NakaoEmail author
  • Motoki Higa
  • Ikutaro Tsuyama
  • Cheng-Tao Lin
  • Shih-To Sun
  • Jian-Rong Lin
  • Chyi-Rong Chiou
  • Tzu-Ying Chen
  • Tetsuya Matsui
  • Nobuyuki Tanaka


Ecosystem vulnerability to climate change remains elusive in the species-rich Taiwan-Japan archipelago. We predicted potential habitats (PHs) of ten dominant evergreen broad-leaved tree species by using the current and twenty potential climate change scenarios using generalised additive models. The presence/absence records of each species, extracted from vegetation database, were used as response variables. Four climatic and one spatial variables were used as explanatory variables. The results showed that the interaction terms of spatial variable, indicating historical range shifts or species interactions, restricted the distribution of all the target species as much as that by the each climatic variable. The PHs of all the target species were predicted to consistently increase, and in particular, to expand northward and upward to the cool temperate zone. However, the PHs were predicted to decrease within the range of 23.6–38.1 % in the Ryukyu Islands for Castanopsis sieboldii and Elaeocarpus japonica, respectively, and within the range of 32.4–42.3 % in Taiwan for Camellia japonica and Distylium racemosum, respectively. These findings suggest that the four species will be vulnerable at the southern range limits; however, the remaining six species will potentially increase within the PH areas in the future at all regions.


East Asia Climate change Species distribution models Multi general circulation models Historical range shifts 



We thank Tomoki Nakaya, Hiroshi Daimaru and Etsuko Nakazono for valuable suggestions concerning the project. This research was supported by the Environmental Research and Technology Development Fund (S-8) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan.

Supplementary material

11258_2014_329_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 2005 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katsuhiro Nakao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Motoki Higa
    • 2
  • Ikutaro Tsuyama
    • 3
  • Cheng-Tao Lin
    • 4
  • Shih-To Sun
    • 4
  • Jian-Rong Lin
    • 4
  • Chyi-Rong Chiou
    • 4
  • Tzu-Ying Chen
    • 5
  • Tetsuya Matsui
    • 1
  • Nobuyuki Tanaka
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Plant EcologyForestry and Forest Products Research InstituteTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.Laboratory of Plant Ecology, Faculty of ScienceKochi UniversityKochiJapan
  3. 3.Hokkaido Research CenterForestry and Forest Products Research InstituteSapporoJapan
  4. 4.School of Forestry and Resource ConservationNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  5. 5.Department of Natural ResourcesNational Ilan UniversityI-LanTaiwan

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