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Vegetation recovery and plant facilitation in a human-disturbed lava field in a megacity: searching tools for ecosystem restoration

Abstract

Unplanned urban development threatens natural ecosystems. Assessing ecosystem recovery after anthropogenic disturbances and identifying plant species that may facilitate vegetation regeneration are critical for the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services in urban areas. At the periphery of Mexico City, illegal human settlements produced different levels of disturbance on natural plant communities developed on a lava field near the Ajusco mountain range. We assessed natural regeneration of plant communities 20 years after the abandonment of the settlements, in sites that received low (manual harvesting of non-timber forest products), medium (removal of aboveground vegetation), and high (removal of substrate and whole vegetation) disturbance levels. We also tested the potential facilitative role played by dominant tree and shrub species. Plant diversity and vegetation biomass decreased as disturbance level increased. Sites with high disturbance level showed poor regeneration and the lowest species similarity compared to the least disturbed sites. Six dominant species (i.e., those with the highest abundance, frequency, and/or basal area) were common to all sites. Among them, three species (the tree Buddleja cordata, and two shrubs, Ageratina glabrata and Sedum oxypetalum) were identified as potential facilitators of community regeneration, because plant density and species richness were significantly higher under their canopies than at open sites. We propose that analyzing community structural traits of the successional vegetation (such as species diversity and biomass) and identifying potential facilitator species are useful steps in assessing the recovery ability of plant communities to anthropogenic disturbances, and in designing restoration strategies.

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Acknowledgments

This paper constitutes a partial fulfillment of the Graduate Programa en Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). PEMH also acknowledges the Dirección General Asuntos del Personal Académico (DGAPA-UNAM) for a PhD scholarship. Financial support was also provided by the PAPIIT-UNAM program (Grant no. IN222508). We thank Susana Valencia-Ávalos and Beatriz González-Hidalgo for taxonomical determinations, María Esther Sánchez-Coronado and Mauricio Villegas for field and laboratory assistance, and Alejandro González-Ponce and Daniel Valle-Vidal for technical support. The Servicio Meteorológico Nacional kindly made available weather data from the Ecoguardas meteorological station. MMR acknowledge the sabbatical fellowships from Programa de Apoyo para la Superación del Personal Académico (PASPA)-DGAPA (UNAM) and Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Técnologia (CONACyT).

Author information

Correspondence to Miguel Martínez-Ramos.

Appendix

Appendix

See Table 2.

Table 2 List of species registered at sites with high-, medium-, and low-disturbance level in the Parque Ecológico de la Ciudad de México

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Mendoza-Hernández, P.E., Orozco-Segovia, A., Meave, J.A. et al. Vegetation recovery and plant facilitation in a human-disturbed lava field in a megacity: searching tools for ecosystem restoration. Plant Ecol 214, 153–167 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-012-0153-y

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Keywords

  • Biodiversity
  • Mexico
  • Oak forest
  • Secondary succession
  • Species richness
  • Xerophytic vegetation