Plant Ecology

, Volume 213, Issue 3, pp 419–430

Variation of growth and functional traits of invasive knotweeds (Fallopia spp.) in Belgium

  • Basile Herpigny
  • Nicolas Dassonville
  • Philippe Ghysels
  • Grégory Mahy
  • Pierre Meerts
Article

Abstract

Three invasive Fallopia taxa are present in Belgium: F. japonica (FJ), F. sachalinensis (FS) and their hybrid F. × bohemica (FB). FS is the least invasive of the three taxa. In this study, we compared the taxa, in sites where they co-occur, for differences in functional traits that might influence their competitive ability and invasiveness—shoot height and ramification, leaf size, specific leaf area (SLA) and foliar nitrogen (N) concentration. The three taxa exhibited similar growth kinetics and similar SLA. However, FS differed in its architecture and allocation of leaf area, having less ramified shoots and a steeper gradient of decreasing leaf size along the main shoot. Also, FS had greater foliar N and less efficient N resorption from senescing leaves. These traits values may result in lower competitive ability of FS for light and nitrogen. For the same traits, FB was generally intermediate between FS and FJ, but often closer to the latter. FB was more variable than FS and FJ, possibly due to larger genetic variation. SLA and ramification varied greatly amongst sites for all taxa, due in part to plastic response to contrasting light regimes. Variation in functional traits values may in part explain the variation in invasiveness amongst the members of the Fallopia complex in Belgium.

Keywords

Biological invasions Functional traits Fallopia Nitrogen Growth SLA 

References

  1. Abbott RJ (1992) Plant invasions, interspecific hybridization and the evolution of new plant taxa. Trends Ecol Evol 7:401–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abbott RJ, Lowe AJ (2004) Origins, establishment and evolution of new polyploidy species: Senecio cambrensis and S. eboracensis in the British Isles. Biol J Linn Soc 82:467–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aguilera AG, Alpert P, Dukes JS, Harrington R (2010) Impacts of the invasive plant Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decraene on plant communities and ecosystem processes. Biol Invasion 12:1243–1252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ainouche ML, Baumel A, Salmon A, Yannic G (2003) Hybridization, polyploidy and speciation in Spartina (Poaceae). New Phytol 161:165–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alberternst B, Böhmer HJ (2006) NOBANIS—Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet—Fallopia japonica—from: online database of the North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species—NOBANIS. www.nobanis.org. Accessed 22 Aug 2007Google Scholar
  6. Alpert P, Bone E, Holzapfel C (2000) Invasiveness, invasibility and the role of environmental stress in the spread of non-native plants. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 3:52–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bailey JP, Stace CA (1992) Chromosome number, morphology, pairing, and DNA values of species and hybrids in the genus Fallopia (Polygonaceae). Plant Syst Evol 180:29–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bailey JP, Bimova K, Mandak B (2009) Asexual spread versus sexual reproduction and evolution in Japanese Knotweed s.l. sets the stage for the “Battle of the Clones”. Biol Invasion 11:1189–1203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barney JN, Di Tommaso A, Weston LA (2005) Differences in invasibility of two contrasting habitats and invasiveness of two mugwort Artemisia vulgaris populations. J Appl Ecol 42:567–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beerling DJ, Bailey JP, Conolly AP (1994) Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decraene. J Ecol 82:959–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bimova K, Mandak B, Pyšek P (2003) Experimental study of vegetative regeneration in four invasive Reynoutria taxa (Polygonaceae). Plant Ecol 166:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cornelissen JHC, Lavorel S, Garnier E, Diaz S, Buchmann N, Gurvich DE, Reich PB, ter Steege H, Morgan HD, van der Heijden MGA, Pausas JG, Poorter H (2003) A handbook of protocols for standardised and easy measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Aust J Bot 51:335–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dassonville N (2008) Impact des plantes exotiques envahissantes sur le fonctionnement des écosystèmes en Belgique. PhD Thesis, Université Libre de BruxellesGoogle Scholar
  14. Dassonville N, Guillaumaud N, Piola F, Meerts P, Poly F (2011) The niche construction by the invasive Asian knotweeds (species complex Fallopia): impact on activity, abundance and community structure of denitrifiers and nitrifiers. Biol Invasion. doi:10.1007/s10530-011-9954-5
  15. Dukes JS, Mooney HA (1999) Does global change increase the success of biological invaders? Trends Ecol Evol 14:135–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ellstrand NC, Schierenbeck KA (2000) Hybridization as a stimulus for the evolution of invasiveness in plants? Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:7043–7050PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gerlach JD, Rice KJ (2003) Testing life history correlates of invasiveness using congeneric plant species. Ecol Appl 13:67–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grime JP (2001) Plant strategies, vegetation processes and ecosystem functioning. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Grotkopp E, Rejmanek M (2007) High seedling relative growth rate and specific leaf area are traits of invasive species: phylogenetically independent contrasts of woody angiosperms. Am J Bot 94:526–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grotkopp E, Rejmanek M, Rost TL (2002) Toward a causal explanation of plant invasiveness: seedling growth and life-history strategies of 29 pine (Pinus) species. Am Nat 159:396–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hamilton MA, Murray BR, Cadotte MW, Hose GC, Baker AC, Harris CJ, Licari D (2005) Life-history correlates of plant invasiveness at regional and continental scales. Ecol Lett 8:1066–1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hobbs RJ, Humphries SE (1995) An integrated approach to the ecology and management of plant invasions. Conserv Biol 9:761–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hollingsworth ML, Bailey JP (2000) Hybridisation and clonal diversity in some introduced Fallopia species (Polygonaceae). Watsonia 23:111–121Google Scholar
  24. Killingbeck KT (1996) Nutrients in senesced leaves: keys to the search for potential resorption and resorption proficiency. Ecology 77:1716–1727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Krebs C, Mahy G, Diethart M, Schaffner U, Tiébré MS, Bizoux J-P (2009) Taxa distribution and RAPD markers indicate different origins and regional differentiation of hybrids in the invasive Fallopia complex in central Western Europe. Plant Biol 12:215–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lake JC, Leishman MR (2004) Invasion success of exotic plants in natural ecosystems: the role of disturbance, plant attributes and freedom from herbivores. Biol Conserv 117:215–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lee CE (2002) Evolutionary genetics of invasive species. Trends Ecol Evol 17:386–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Leishman MR, Haslehurst T, Ares A, Baruch Z (2007) Leaf trait relationships of native and invasive plants: community- and global-scale comparisons. New Phytol 176:635–643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lonsdale WM (1999) Patterns of plant invasions and the concept of invasibility. Ecology 80:1522–1536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mandak B, Pyšek P, Lysak M, Suda J, Krahulcova A, Bimova K (2003) Variation in DNA-ploidy levels of Reynoutria taxa in the Czech Republic. Ann Bot 92:265–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mandak B, Pyšek P, Bimova K (2004) History of the invasion and distribution of Reynoutria taxa in the Czech Republic: a hybrid spreading faster than its parents. Preslia 76:15–64Google Scholar
  32. Marigo G, Pautou G (1998) Phenology, growth and ecophysiological characteristics of Fallopia sachalinensis. J Veg Sci 9:379–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Meerts P, Tiébré M-S (2007) Fallopia × bohemica est beaucoup plus répandu que F. sachalinensis dans la région de Bruxelles. Dumortiera 92:22–24Google Scholar
  34. Pyšek P, Richardson DM (2007) Traits associated with invasiveness in alien plants: where do we stand? In: Nentwig W (ed) Biological invasions. Springer, New York, pp 97–125Google Scholar
  35. Pyšek P, Brock JH, Bimova K, Mandak B, Jarosik V, Koukolikova I, Pergl J, Stepanek J (2003) Vegetative regeneration in invasive Reynoutria (Polygonaceae) taxa: the determinant of invasibility at the genotype level. Am J Bot 90:1487–1495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rejmanek M (2000) Invasive plants: approaches and predictions. Aust Ecol 25:497–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rejmanek M, Richardson DM (1996) What attributes make some plants species more invasive? Ecology 77:1655–1661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Richards CL, Walls RL, Bailey JP, Parameswaran R, George T, Pigliucci M (2008) Plasticity in salt tolerance traits allows for invasion of novel habitat by Japanese knotweed s.l. (Fallopia japonica and F. × bohemica, Polygonaceae). Am J Bot 95(8):931–942PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Salmon A, Ainouche ML, Wendel JF (2005) Genetic and epigenetic consequences of recent hybridization and polyploidy in Spartina (Poaceae). Mol Ecol 14:1163–1175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schnitzler A, Bailey J (2008) Polymorphisme génétique et plasticité phénotypique: deux atouts pour la dispersion des renouées asiatiques? Rev Ecol 63:209–217Google Scholar
  41. Siemens TJ, Blossey B (2007) An evaluation of mechanisms preventing growth and survival of two native species in invasive bohemian knotweed (Fallopia × bohemica, Polygonaceae). Am J Bot 94:776–783PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Silvertown J, Lovett-Doust J (1993) Introduction to plant population biology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  43. Smith MD, Knapp AK (2001) Physiological and morphological traits of exotic, invasive exotic, and native plant species in tallgrass prairie. Int J Plant Sci 162:785–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Soltis PS, Soltis DE (2000) The role of genetic and genomic attributes in the success of polyploids. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:7051–7057PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Speek TAA, Lotz LAP, Ozinga WA, Tamis WLM, Schaminée JHJ, van der Putten WH (2011) Factors relating to regional and local success of exotic plant species in their new range. Divers Distrib 17:542–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Theoharides KA, Dukes JS (2007) Plant invasion across space and time: factors affecting nonindigenous species success during four stages of invasion. New Phytol 176:256–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Thiébaud C, Finzi AC, Affre L, Debussche M, Escarre J (1996) Assessing why two introduced Conyza differ in their ability to invade Mediterranean old fields. Ecology 77:784–791Google Scholar
  48. Tiébré MS, Bizoux J-P, Hardy OJ, Bailey JP, Mahy G (2007a) Hybridization and morphogenetic variation in the invasive alien Fallopia (Polygonaceae) complex in Belgium. Am J Bot 94:1900–1910PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tiébré MS, Vanderhoeven S, Saad L, Mahy G (2007b) Hybridization and sexual reproduction in the invasive alien Fallopia (Polygonaceae) complex in Belgium. Ann Bot 99:193–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tiébré MS, Saad L, Mahy G (2008) Landscape dynamics and habitat selection by the alien invasive Fallopia (Polygonaceae) in Belgium. Biodivers Conserv 17:2357–2370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Urgenson LS, Reichard SH, Halpern CB (2009) Community and ecosystem consequences of giant knotweed (Polygonum sachalinense) invasion into riparian forests of western Washington, USA. Biol Conserv 142:1536–1541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. van Kleunen M, Weber E, Fischer M (2010) A meta-analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive plant species. Ecol Lett 13:235–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Van Landuyt W, Hoste I, Vanhecke L, Van den Bremt P, Vercruysse W, De Beer D (2006) Atlas van de Flora van Vlaanderen en het Brussels Gewest. Instituut Voor Natuur-en Bosonderzoek, Nationale Plantentuin van België and Flo. WerGoogle Scholar
  54. Vanderhoeven S, Pieret N, Tiébré M-S, Dassonville N, Meerts P, Rossi E, Nijs I, Pairon M, Jacquemart AL, Vanhecke L, Hoste I, Verloove F, Mahy G (2006) Invasive plants in Belgium: patterns, processes and monitoring (INPLANBEL). Belgian Science Policy, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  55. Verloove F (2006) Catalogue of neophytes in Belgium (1800–2005). National Botanic Garden, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  56. Vila M, Weber E, D’Antonio CM (2000) Conservation implications of invasion by plant hybridization. Biol Invasion 2:207–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Violle C, Navas M-L, Vile D, Kazakou E, Fortunel C, Garnier E (2007) Let the concept of trait be functional! Oikos 116:882–892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Walls RL (2010) Hybridization and plasticity contribute to divergence among coastal and wetland populations of invasive hybrid Japanese Knotweed sl (Fallopia spp). Estuar Coasts 33:902–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wright IJ, Reich PB, Westoby M, Ackerly DD, Baruch Z, Bongers F, Cavender-Barres J, Chapin T, Cornelissen JHC, Diemer M, Flexas J, Garnier E, Groom PK, Gulias J, Hikosaka K, Lamont BB, Lee T, Lee W, Lusk C, Midgley JJ, Navas ML, Niinemets U, Oleksyn J, Osada N, Poorter H, Poot P, Prior L, Pyankov VI, Roumet C, Thomas SC, Tjoelker MG, Veneklaas EJ, Villar R (2004) The worldwide leaf economics spectrum. Nature 428:821–827PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Basile Herpigny
    • 1
  • Nicolas Dassonville
    • 1
  • Philippe Ghysels
    • 1
  • Grégory Mahy
    • 2
  • Pierre Meerts
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire d’Ecologie Végétale et BiogéochimieUniversité Libre de BruxellesBrusselsBelgium
  2. 2.Unité Biodiversité et PaysageGembloux AgroBioTech, Université de LiègeLiègeBelgium

Personalised recommendations