Nitrate leaching as a function of plant community richness and composition, and the scaling of soil nutrients, in a restored temperate grassland
- 306 Downloads
Two, two-factor experiments manipulated species and functional form plant richness and the spatial scaling of either nitrogen (N) or phosphorous (P) in restored tallgrass prairie in North Dakota, USA. Nitrate (NO3 −) leaching was measured in these plots and analyzed for its response to the treatment factors and measured plant community parameters. Nitrate extracted from anion exchange resin was regressed against the first principal component of species and functional form richness, the spatial scaling of N or P, the measured biomass of the functional forms used and the plot values for plant parameters based on weighted averages by species biomass. The treatments applied in the N and P experiments were 1, 2, 5, 10, or 20 plant species taxa, and the application of fertilizer in a random fractal pattern with either fine-scale or coarse-scale heterogeneity. Nitrate leaching decreased with plant diversity and increased by a factor of two going from fine-scale to coarse-scale N. It was also related to a number of plant functional parameters, and was positively correlated with the biomass of late successional C3 grasses (Koeleria cristata (Lam.) Beauv., Poa pratensis L., Stipa comata Trin. & Rupr., and Stipa viridula Trin.), which are known from previous studies to have negative mycorrhizal responsiveness and are characterized by high root lateral spread per unit of root biomass. Our results show that while plant diversity has a highly significant influence on plant community uptake of NO3 −, this effect is mediated by the scaling of soil N and the functional traits of the species comprising the plant assemblage.
KeywordsNutrient cycling Plant community composition Functional form diversity Northern tallgrass prairie restoration Species diversity Temperate grassland
Thanks go to J. Norland for invaluable help in the design and implementation of the field and laboratory methods. C. Prescott and A. Kozak provided helpful comments on the manuscript. Research was funded by grants from the National Science Foundation (DEB-9627928), and USDA-NRICGP (93-0051 and 99-00979) to M. Biondini.
- Bardgett RD (2005) The biology of soil: a community and ecosystem approach. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Bremner JM (1965) Inorganic forms of nitrogen. In: Black CA (ed) Methods of soil analysis. Agronomy No 9. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, pp 1179–1205Google Scholar
- Darwin C (1859) On the origin of species. J. Murray, LondonGoogle Scholar
- McCune B, Grace JB (2002) Analysis of ecological communities. MJM software design. Gleneden Beach, OR, USAGoogle Scholar
- Miller RM, Jastrow JD (1992a) The application of VA mycorrhizae to ecosystem restoration and reclamation. In: Allen MF (ed) Mycorrhizal functioning: an integrative plant-fungal process. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 438–467Google Scholar
- Miller RM, Jastrow JD (1992b) Extraradical hyphal development of vesicular-AM fungi in a chronosequence of prairie restorations. In: Read DJ, Lewis DH, Fitter AH, Alexander IJ (eds) Mycorrhizas in Ecosystems. C.A.B. International, Wallingford, UK, pp 171–176Google Scholar
- Milliken GA, Johnson DE (2002) Analysis of messy data III Analysis of Covariance. Chapman and Hall/CRC, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Robertson GP, Groffman P (2007) Nitrogen transformations. In: Paul EA, Clark FE (eds) Soil microbiology, biochemistry, and ecology. Springer, New York, pp 341–388Google Scholar
- Snedecor GW, Cochran WG (1976) Statistical methods, 6th edn. The Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA, USAGoogle Scholar
- Stevenson FJ, Cole MA (1999) Cycles of soil: carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, micronutrients, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
- Tabachnick B, Fidell L (2001) Using multivariate statistics, 4th edn. HarperCollins, New YorkGoogle Scholar