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Flowering phenology and female fitness: impact of a pre-dispersal seed predator on a sexually polymorphic species

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Abstract

In order to produce seeds, animal-pollinated plants must flower synchronously with and be attractive to their pollinators while avoiding antagonists. Here, we explore temporal and inter-individual patterns in pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation of Dianthus sylvestris by Hadena moths, within and among three sex morphs. We scored plants that started flowering at different periods in 2001 and 2003 and found that fruit set decreased and predation rates increased over one season, and most of the other season, granting a female reproductive advantage to early flowering plants, though, we found no morph-specific temporal patterns. Female plants set more fruits, and more of their fruits escaped predation in one year, but this did not grant them a reproductive advantage since they produce fewer flowers per plant than the other morphs. Instead, mixed plants showed a clear female reproductive advantage. We also examined predation types by Hadena and seed production in attacked and intact fruits of individually marked flowers. Though female Hadena moths laid eggs preferentially into perfect flowers, flower sexes suffered similar predation by itinerant caterpillars. Attacked fruits contained fewer and lighter seeds than un-attacked ones. We conclude that pre-dispersal seed predation by Hadena may select on flowering onset of this sexually polymorphic species.

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Acknowledgments

We thank Jessica Franceschina and Marion Cuny, as well as Ñusta Almeida and Annie Collin, remarkable field assistants, for their help in collecting and analyzing data. The Park of the Rupestrian Engravings of Grosio generously allowed us to work on the site, and The Fondazione Fojanini di Studi Superiori (Sondrio, Italy) provided detailed meteorological data. Discussions with the members of the Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning team at ENS (Paris) and the Plant Evolutionary Ecology Research Group at the University of Pittsburgh (PA) improved the quality of the manuscript. We wish to thank Laurent Penet, Susan Kephart, Anne Atlan, Isabelle Dajoz, Tia-Lynn Ashman, and the two anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments on the earlier drafts.

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Correspondence to Carine L. Collin.

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Collin, C.L., Shykoff, J.A. Flowering phenology and female fitness: impact of a pre-dispersal seed predator on a sexually polymorphic species. Plant Ecol 206, 1–13 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-009-9620-5

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Keywords

  • Dianthus sylvestris (Caryophyllaceae)
  • Granivory
  • Gynomonoecy–gynodioecy
  • Hadena
  • Natural enemies
  • Pollination