Plant Ecology

, Volume 204, Issue 1, pp 55–68 | Cite as

Recolonization potential of bryophyte diaspore banks in harvested boreal mixed-wood forest

  • Richard T. Caners
  • S. Ellen Macdonald
  • René J. Belland
Article

Abstract

Bryophyte diaspore banks are a potential source of reproductive propagules that may be able to colonize newly available habitat after forest harvesting. However, their role and the factors influencing the successful establishment of species remain poorly understood. To investigate these aspects of diaspore banks, we obtained mineral soil samples from mixed and coniferous stands of boreal mixed-wood forest in northern Alberta, Canada, which had recently experienced a range of harvesting intensities. Samples were germinated in growth cabinets under two light regimes. The composition of germinated bryophyte species was compared among forest types, harvesting intensities, and light levels, and also related to edaphic conditions and geographic location of the sample site. Germinated species composition was not related to forest type or harvesting intensity, but was associated with measured edaphic variables and geographic space, indicating that similarity in species composition reflected similarity in edaphic conditions and spatial proximity. This was partly because of spatial dependence of edaphic variables. Light intensity had a significant influence on the development of species assemblages and individual species responses. Richness and cover of acrocarpous mosses (fugitive, colonist, and shuttle life-history strategies) were significantly reduced under low light conditions, but pleurocarpous mosses (perennial strategy) were not affected. Shannon diversity and the frequency of reproduction were significantly greater with high light. Pleurocarpous mosses that are characteristic of intact forests germinated frequently, suggesting that diaspore banks may influence their recovery after disturbance. Diaspore banks are a repository of species at sites affected by forest harvesting; however, diaspore germination and establishment will be constrained by the local environment, including edaphic conditions and light intensity.

Keywords

Disturbance Germination Liverwort Mantel test Moss Variable retention 

References

  1. Anderson LE (1990) Checklist of Sphagnum in North America north of Mexico. Bryologist 93:500–501. doi:10.2307/3243612 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson LE, Crum HA, Buck WR (1990) List of the mosses of North America north of Mexico. Bryologist 93:448–449. doi:10.2307/3243611 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Åström M, Dynesius M, Hylander K, Nilsson C (2005) Effects of slash harvest on bryophytes and vascular plants in southern boreal forest clear-cuts. J Appl Ecol 42:1194–1202. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2005.01087.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benscotter BW (2006) Post-fire bryophyte establishment in a continental bog. J Veg Sci 17:647–652. doi:10.1658/1100-9233(2006)17[647:PBEIAC]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bisang I (1996) Quantitative analysis of the diaspore banks of bryophytes and ferns in cultivated fields in Switzerland. Lindbergia 21:20–99Google Scholar
  6. Borcard D, Legendre P, Drapeau P (1992) Partialling out the spatial component of ecological variation. Ecology 73:1045–1055. doi:10.2307/1940179 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Campbell DR, Rochefort L, Lavoie C (2003) Determining the immigration potential of plants colonizing disturbed environments: the case of milled peatlands in Quebec. J Appl Ecol 40:78–91. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2664.2003.00782.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cleavitt N (2002) Stress tolerance of rare and common moss species in relation to their occupied environments and asexual dispersal potential. J Ecol 90:785–795. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2745.2002.00713.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Connell JH, Slatyer RO (1977) Mechanisms of succession in natural communities and their role in community stability and organization. Am Nat 111:1119–1144. doi:10.1086/283241 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Crum HA, Anderson LE (1981) Mosses of eastern North America, vols 2. Columbia University Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  11. Decocq D, Valentin B, Toussaint B, Hendoux F, Saguez R, Bardat J (2004) Soil seed bank composition and diversity in a managed temperate deciduous forest. Biodivers Conserv 13:2485–2509. doi:10.1023/B:BIOC.0000048454.08438.c6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. During HJ (1979) Life strategies of bryophytes a preliminary review. Lindbergia 5:2–18Google Scholar
  13. During HJ (1992) Ecological classifications of bryophytes and lichens. In: Bates JW, Farmer AM (eds) Bryophytes and lichens in a changing environment. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, pp 1–31Google Scholar
  14. During HJ (1997) Bryophyte diaspore banks. Adv Bryol 6:103–134Google Scholar
  15. During HJ (2001) Diaspore banks. Bryologist 104:92–97. doi:10.1639/0007-2745(2001)104[0092:DB]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. During HJ, ter Horst B (1987) Diversity and dynamics in bryophyte communities on earth banks in a Dutch forest. Symp Biol Hung 35:447–455Google Scholar
  17. During HJ, Brugues M, Cros RM, Lloret F (1987) The diaspore bank of bryophytes and ferns in the soil in some contrasting habitats around Barcelona, Spain. Lindbergia 13:137–149Google Scholar
  18. Dynesius M, Hylander K (2007) Resilience of bryophyte communities to clear-cutting of boreal stream-side forests. Biol Conserv 135:423–434. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2006.10.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Environment Canada (1995) Canadian biodiversity strategy. Environment Canada, Hull, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  20. Environment Canada (2007) Canadian climate normals 1971–2000: Peace River, Alberta. http://climate.weatheroffice.ec.gc.ca/climate_normals. Cited 1 Dec 2007
  21. Fenton NJ, Frego KA (2005) Bryophyte (moss and liverwort) conservation under remnant canopy in managed forests. Biol Conserv 122:417–430. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2004.09.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fenton NJ, Frego KA, Sims MR (2003) Changes in forest floor bryophyte (moss and liverwort) communities 4 years after forest harvest. Can J Bot 81:714–731. doi:10.1139/b03-063 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Frego KA (1996) Regeneration of four boreal bryophytes: colonization of experimental gaps by naturally occurring propagules. Can J Bot 74:1937–1942. doi:10.1139/b96-231 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Furness SB, Hall RH (1981) An explanation of the intermittent occurrence of Physcomitrium sphaericum (Hedw.) Brid. J Bryol 11:733–744Google Scholar
  25. Ghorbani J, Das PM, Das AB, Hughes JM, McAllister HA, Pallai SK, Pakeman RJ, Marrs RH, Le Duc MG (2003) Effects of restoration treatments on the diaspore bank under dense Pteridium stands in the UK. Appl Veg Sci 6:189–198. doi:10.1658/1402-2001(2003)006[0189:EORTOT]2.0.CO;2 Google Scholar
  26. Gould J (2006) Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre tracking and watch lists. Alberta Community Development. Parks and Protected Areas Division, Edmonton, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  27. Grime JP (1989) Seed banks in ecological perspective. In: Parker VT, Leck MA, Simpson RL (eds) The ecology of seed banks. Academic Press, London, UK, pp 15–22Google Scholar
  28. Grime JP, Rincon ER, Wickerson BE (1990) Bryophytes and plant strategy theory. Bot J Linn Soc 104:175–186. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1990.tb02217.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Grubb PJ (1977) The maintenance of species richness in plant communities: The importance of the regeneration niche. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 52:107–145. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.1977.tb01347.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Handlová V, Münzbergová Z (2006) Seed banks of managed and degraded grasslands in the Krkonoše Mts., Czeck Republic. Folia Geobot 41:275–288. doi:10.1007/BF02904942 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hautala H, Tolvanen A, Nuortila C (2008) Recovery of pristine boreal forest floor community after selective removal of understory, ground and humus layers. Plant Ecol 194:273–282. doi:10.1007/s11258-007-9290-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hock Z, Szövényi P, Schneller JJ, Tóth Z, Urmi E (2008) Bryophyte diaspore bank: a genetic memory? Genetic structure and genetic diversity of surface populations and diaspore bank in the liverwort Mannia fragrans (Aytoniaceae). Am J Bot 95:542–548. doi:10.3732/ajb.2007283 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hyatt LA, Evans AS (1998) Is decreased germination fraction associated with risk of sibling competition? Oikos 83:29–35. doi:10.2307/3546543 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hylander K, Dynesius M, Jonsson BG, Nilsson C (2005) Substrate form determines the fate of bryophytes in riparian buffer strips. Ecol Appl 15:674–688. doi:10.1890/04-0570 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Imura S (1994) Vegetative diaspores in Japanese mosses. J Hattori Bot Lab 77:177–232Google Scholar
  36. Jackson DA, Somers KM (1989) Are probability estimates from the permutation model of Mantel’s test stable? Can J Zool 67:766–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jonsson BG (1993) The bryophyte diaspore bank and its role after small-scale disturbance in a boreal forest. J Veg Sci 4:819–826. doi:10.2307/3235620 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jonsson BG, Esseen P (1990) Treefall disturbance maintains high bryophyte diversity in a boreal spruce forest. J Ecol 78:924–936. doi:10.2307/2260943 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kimmerer RW (1996) Effect of gap size and regeneration niche on species coexistence in bryophyte communities. Bull Torrey Bot Club 123:16–24. doi:10.2307/2996302 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kimmerer RW (2005) Patterns of dispersal and establishment of bryophytes colonizing natural and experimental treefall founds in northern hardwood forests. Bryologist 108:391–401. doi:10.1639/0007-2745(2005)108[0391:PODAEO]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kishchuk B (2004) Soils of the Ecosystem Management Emulating Natural Disturbance (EMEND) experimental area, northwestern Alberta. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, Canada. Inf. Rep. NOR-X-397Google Scholar
  42. Koponen T (1974) A guide to the Mniaceae in Canada. Lindbergia 2:160–184Google Scholar
  43. Laaka-Lindberg S, Korpelainen H, Pohjamo M (2003) Dispersal of asexual propagules in bryophytes. J Hattori Bot Lab 93:319–330Google Scholar
  44. Legendre P, Legendre L (1998) Numerical ecology, 2nd English edition. Elsevier, Amsterdam, UKGoogle Scholar
  45. Magurran AE (2004) Measuring biological diversity. Blackwell, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  46. Mills SE, Macdonald SE (2005) Factors influencing bryophyte assemblage at different scales in the western Canadian boreal forest. Bryologist 108:86–100. doi:10.1639/0007-2745(2005)108[86:FIBAAD]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nelson CR, Halpern CB (2005) Short-term effects of timber harvest and forest edges on ground-layer mosses and liverworts. Can J Bot 83:610–620. doi:10.1139/b05-036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Newton AE, Mishler BD (1994) The evolutionary significance of asexual reproduction in mosses. J Hattori Bot Lab 76:127–145Google Scholar
  49. Nilsson MC, Wardle DA (2005) Understory vegetation as a forest ecosystem driver: evidence from the northern Swedish boreal forest. Front Ecol Environ 3:421–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Økland T, Rydgren K, Økland RH, Storaunet KO, Rolstad J (2003) Variation in environmental conditions, understory species richness, abundance and composition among natural and managed Picea abies forest stands. For Ecol Manag 177:17–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Oksanen J, Kindt R, Legendre P, O’Hara RB (2007) vegan: Community Ecology Package, version 1.8–6. http://cran.r-project.org/. Cited 1 Dec 2007
  52. Olano JM, Caballero I, Laskurain NA, Loidi J, Escudero A (2002) Seed bank spatial pattern in a temperate secondary forest. J Veg Sci 13:775–784. doi:10.1658/1100-9233(2002)013[0775:SBSPIA]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Peterson JE (1993) The effects of forest harvest on bryophyte recolonization in a mixed forest in New Brunswick. M.Sc. thesis, University New Brunswick, St. John, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  54. Poschlod P (1995) Diaspore rain and diaspore bank in raised bogs and implications for the restoration of peat-mined sites. In: Wheeler BD, Shaw SC, Fojt WJ, Robertson RA (eds) Restoration of temperate wetlands. Wiley, Chichester, UK, pp 471–494Google Scholar
  55. R Development Core Team (2006) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0. http://www.R-project.org. Cited 1 Dec 2007
  56. Rincon ER, Grime JP (1989) Plasticity and light interception by six bryophytes of contrasted ecology. J Ecol 77:439–446. doi:10.2307/2260760 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Roovers P, Bossuyt B, Igodt B, Hermy M (2006) May seed banks contribute to vegetation restoration on paths in temperate deciduous forest? Plant Ecol 187:25–38. doi:10.1007/s11258-006-9130-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ross-Davis AL, Frego KA (2004) Propagule sources of forest floor bryophytes: spatiotemporal compositional patterns. Bryologist 107:88–97. doi:10.1639/0007-2745(2004)107[88:PSOFFB]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rydgren K, Hestmark G (1997) The soil propagule bank in a boreal old-growth spruce forest: changes with depth and relationship to aboveground vegetation. Can J Bot 75:121–128. doi:10.1139/b97-014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rydgren K, Økland RH (2002) Ultimate costs of sporophyte production in the clonal moss Hylocomium splendens. Ecology 83:1573–1579Google Scholar
  61. Rydgren K, Hestmark G, Økland RH (1998) Revegetation following experimental disturbance in a boreal old-growth Picea abies forest. J Veg Sci 9:763–776. doi:10.2307/3237042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rydgren K, Økland RH, Hestmark G (2004) Disturbance severity and community resilience in a boreal forest. Ecology 85:1906–1915. doi:10.1890/03-0276 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Schofield WB (2001) Introduction to bryology. The Blackburn Press, Caldwell, NJGoogle Scholar
  64. Söderström L (1987) Dispersal as a limiting factor for distribution among epixylic bryophytes. Symp Biol Hung 35:475–484Google Scholar
  65. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1995) Biometry. Freeman, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  66. Stotler R, Crandall-Stotler BA (1977) Checklist of the liverworts and hornworts of North America. Bryologist 80:407–428. doi:10.2307/3242017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Strong WL, Leggat KR (1992) Ecoregions of Alberta. Alberta Forestry, Lands and Wildlife, Land Information Services Division, Resource Information Branch, Edmonton, Canada. Publication number T/245Google Scholar
  68. Sundberg S, Rydin H (2000) Experimental evidence for a persistent spore bank in Sphagnum. New Phytol 148:105–116. doi:10.1046/j.1469-8137.2000.00746.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. ter Braak CJF, Šmilauer P (2002) CANOCO reference manual and Cano-Draw for Windows user’s guide: software for canonical community ordination, version 4.5. Microcomputer Power, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  70. Thompson K, Grime JP (1979) Seasonal variation in the seed banks of herbaceous species in 10 contrasting habitats. J Ecol 67:893–922. doi:10.2307/2259220 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tilman D (1997) Community invasibility, recruitment limitation, and grassland biodiversity. Ecology 78:81–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. UNEP (1992) Rio Declaration, World Conference on Environment and Development, United Nations Environment Program, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  73. van Tooren BF, During HJ (1988) Early succession of bryophyte communities on Dutch forest earth banks. Lindbergia 14:40–46Google Scholar
  74. Vitt DH, Li Y, Belland R (1995) Patterns of bryophyte diversity in peatlands of continental western Canada. Bryologist 98:218–227. doi:10.2307/3243306 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. von Oheimb G, Friedel A, Bertsch A, Hardtle W (2007) The effects of windthrow on plant species richness in a Central European beech forest. Plant Ecol 191:47–65. doi:10.1007/s11258-006-9213-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Work TT, Shorthouse DP, Spence JR, Volney WA, Langor D (2004) Stand composition and structure of the boreal mixedwood and epigaeic arthropods of the Ecosystem Management Emulating Natural Disturbance (EMEND) landbase in northwestern Alberta. Can J Res 34:417–430. doi:10.1139/x03-238 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard T. Caners
    • 1
  • S. Ellen Macdonald
    • 1
  • René J. Belland
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Renewable ResourcesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations