Advertisement

Plant Ecology

, Volume 199, Issue 1, pp 125–135 | Cite as

Spatio-temporal patterns of tree community dynamics in a tropical forest fragment in South-east Brazil

  • Pedro Higuchi
  • Ary T. Oliveira-Filho
  • Daniel P. Bebber
  • Nick D. Brown
  • Ana Carolina Silva
  • Evandro L. M. Machado
Article

Abstract

The tree community (dbh > 5 cm) of a fragment of tropical montane semi-deciduous forest in South-east Brazil was repeatedly surveyed over a 19-year period in order to assess spatial and temporal patterns of dynamics. The surveys took place in 1987, 1992, 1996, 2001, and 2006 in a grid of 126 20 × 20 m permanent plots covering almost the entire fragment (5.8 ha). Overall patterns indicated that a self-thinning process has taken place in the fragment since 1992. Community dynamics varied in space and time, with most dynamics highly spatially clustered. With exception of mortality rates, there were no changes in the spatial patterns of community dynamics through time. No relation between edges and dynamics variables was found. Most species with increasing density and basal area were shade-bearers, while most decreasing species were canopy light demanders and pioneers.

Keywords

Forest fragmentation Spatial patterns Temporal patterns Tree dynamics Tropical montane semi-deciduous forest 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This research was supported by CAPES (Coordenadoria de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Ensino Superior) doctorate scholarship to the first author. We thank two anonymous reviewers who provided useful comments.

References

  1. Anselin L (1995) Local Indicators of Spatial Association—LISA. Geogr Anal 27:93–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anselin L (2005) Spatial regression analysis in R. A Workbook. Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science, University of Illinois, UrbanaGoogle Scholar
  3. Appolinário V, Oliveira-Filho AT, Guilherme FAG (2005) Tree population and community dynamics in a Brazilian tropical semi-deciduous forest. Revista Brasileira de Botânica 28:347–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker PJ, Bunyavejchewin S, Oliver CD, Ashton PS (2005). Disturbance history and historical stand dynamics of a seasonal tropical forest in western Thailand. Ecol Monogr 75:317–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cochrane MA, Laurance WF (2002) Fire as a large-scale effect in Amazonian forests. J Trop Ecol 18:311–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Condit R, Hubbell SP, Foster RB (1995) Mortality rates of 205 Neotropical tree and shrub species and the impact of a severe drought. Ecol Monogr 65:419–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Denslow JS, Ellison E, Sanford RE (1998) Tropical rain forest gaps and tree species diversity. J Ecol 86:597–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. DNMET (1992) Normais Meteorológicas (1961–1990). Departamento Nacional de Meteorologia, Ministério da Agricultura, BrasíliaGoogle Scholar
  9. Felfili JM (1995) Growth, recruitment and mortality in the Gama gallery forest in central Brazil over a six-year period (1985–1991). J Trop Ecol 11:67–83Google Scholar
  10. Gascon C, Williamson GB, Fonseca GAB (2000) Receding forest edges and vanishing reserves. Science 288(5470):1356–1358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Giannitrapani M, Bowman A, Scott EM (2005) Additive models with correlated errors. Technical Report No.05-05, Department of Statistics, The University of GlasgowGoogle Scholar
  12. Guilherme FAG, Oliveira-Filho AT, Appolinário V, Bearzoti E (2004) Effects of flooding regime and woody bamboos on tree community dynamics in a section of tropical semideciduous forest in South-eastern Brazil. Plant Ecol 174:19–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hardy OJ, Sonké B (2004) Spatial pattern analysis of tree species distribution in a tropical rain forest of Cameroon: assessing the role of limited dispersal and niche differentiation. For Ecol Manage 197:191–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hewitt N, Kellman M (2002) Tree seed dispersal among forest fragments: II. Dispersal abilities and biogeographical controls. J Biogeogr 29(3):351–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ickes K, Williamson B (2000) Edge effects and ecological processes: are they on the same scale? Trend Ecol Evol 15(9):373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kapos V, Camargos JLC, Dande G (1997) Edge related changes in environment and plant response due to forest fragmentation in Central Amazonia. In: Laurance WF, Bierregaard RO (eds) Tropical forest remnants: ecology, management and conservation of fragmented communities. Chicago, pp 45–54Google Scholar
  17. Korning J, Balslev H (1994) Growth rates and mortality patterns of tropical lowland tree species and the relation to forest structure in Amazonian Ecuador. J Trop Ecol 10:151–166Google Scholar
  18. Laurance WF (2000) Do edge effects occur over large spatial scales? Trend Ecol and Evol 15:134–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Laurance WF, Ferreira LV, Rankin-de-Merona JM, Laurance SG (1998) Rain forest fragmentation and the dynamics of Amazonian tree communities. Ecology 79:2032–2040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Laurance WF, Oliveira AO, Laurance SG, Condit R, Nascimento HEM, Sanches-Thorin AC, Lovejoy TE, Andrade A, D´Angelo S, Ribeiro JE, Dick CW (2004) Pervasive alteration of tree communities in undisturbed Amazonian forest. Science 428:171–174Google Scholar
  21. Lewis SL, Phillips OL, Baker TR, Lloyd J, Malhi Y, Almeida S, Higuchi N, Laurance WF, Neill DA, Silva JNM, Terborgh J, Torres Lezama A, Vázquez Martinez R, Brown S, Chave J, Kuebler C, Núñez Vargas P, Vinceti B (2004a) Concerted changes in tropical forest structure and dynamics: evidence from 50 South American long-term plots. Trans R Soc Lond B 359:421–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lieberman D, Lieberman M (1987) Forest tree growth and dynamics at La Selva, Costa Rica (1969–1982). J Trop Ecol 3:347–358Google Scholar
  23. Luo Z, Wahba G, Johnson DR (1998) Spatial-temporal analyses of temperature using smoothing spline ANOVA. J Clim 11:18–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Moran PAP (1950) Notes on continuous stochastic process. Biometrika 37:17–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Morellato LPC, Haddad CFB (2000) Introduction: The Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Biotropica 32:786–792Google Scholar
  26. Murcia C (1995) Edge effects in fragmented forest: implications for conservation. Trend Ecol Evol 10(2):58–62Google Scholar
  27. Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, Fonseca GAB, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403:855–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nebel G, Kvist LP, Vanclay JK, Vidaurre H (2001) Forest dynamics in flood plain forests in the Peruvian Amazon: effects of disturbance and implications for management. For Ecol Manage 150:79–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nunes YRF, Mendonça AVR, Oliveira-Filho AT, Botezelli L, Machado ELM (2003) Variações da fisionomia, diversidade e composição de guildas da comunidade arbórea em um fragmento de floresta semidecidual em Lavras, MG. Acta Botanica Brasilica 17(2):213–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Oliveira-Filho AT, Fontes MAL (2000) Patterns of floristic differentiation among Atlantic forests in southeastern Brazil and the influence of climate. Biotropica 32:793–810Google Scholar
  31. Oliveira-Filho AT, Mello JM, Scolforo JRS (1994) Composição florística e estrutura comunitária de um remanescente de floresta semidecídua montana em Lavras (MG). Revista Brasileira de Botânica 17(2):159–174Google Scholar
  32. Oliveira-Filho AT, Mello JM, Scolforo JRS (1997) Effects of past disturbance and edges on tree community structure and dynamics within a fragment of tropical semideciduous forest in south-eastern Brazil over a five-year period (1987–1992). Plant Ecol 131:45–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Oliveira-Filho AT, Carvalho WAC, Machado ELM, Higuchi P, Appolinário V, Carvalho GC, Silva AC, Santos RM, Borges FL, Correa BS, Bueno JMA (2007) Dinâmica da comunidade e populações arbóreas da borda e interior de um remanescente florestal na Serra da Mantiqueira, Minas Gerais, em um intervalo de cinco anos (1994–2004). Revista Brasileira de Botânica 30:149–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Paciencia MLB, Prado J (2005) Effects of forest fragmentation on pteridophyte diversity in a tropical rain forest in Brazil. Plant Ecol 180:87–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pereira JAA, Oliveira-Filho AT, Lemos-Filho JP (2007) Environmental heterogeneity and disturbance by humans control much of the tree species diversity of fragments of tropical montane seasonal forests in SE Brazil. Biodivers Conserv 16:187–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Phillips OL, Baker TR, Arroyo L, Higuchi N, Killeen TJ, Laurance WF, Lewis SL, Lloyd J, Malhi Y, Monteagudo A, Neill DA, Núñes Vargas P, Silva JNM, Terborgh J, Vásquez Martínez R, Alexiades M, Almeida S, Brown S, Chave J, Comiskey JA, Czimczik CI, Di Fiori A, Erwin T, Kuebler C, Laurance SG, Nascimento HEM, Olivier J, Palacios W, Patiño S, Pitman NCA, Quesada CA, Saldias M, Torres Lezama A, Vinceti B (2004) Pattern and process in Amazonian tree turnover, 1976–2001. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 359:381–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Picket STA, White PS (1985) The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Pither R, Kellman M (2002) Tree species diversity in small, tropical riparian forest fragments in Belize, Central America. Biodivers Conserv 11:1623–1636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. R Core Development Team (2006) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria, Available on-line from http://www.R-project.org
  40. Ribeiro Jr PJ, Diggle PJ (2001) geoR: a package for geostatistical analysis. R-NEWS 1(2):15–18Google Scholar
  41. Sheil D, Burslem DFRP (2003) Disturbing hypotheses in tropical forests. Trend Ecol Evol 18:18–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sheil D, May RM (1996) Mortality and recruitment rate evaluations in heterogeneous tropical forests. J Ecol 84:91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Siqueira-Filho JA, Tabarelli M (2006) Bromeliad species of the Atlantic forest of north-east Brazil: losses of critical populations of endemic species. Oryx 40:218–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1995) Biometry: the principles and practice of statistics in biological research. WH Freeman & Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Tabanez AAJ, Viana VM (2000) Patch structure within Brazilian Atlantic forest fragments and implications for conservation. Biotropica 32:925–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tabarelli M, Mantovani W, Peres CA (1999) Effects of habitat fragmentation on plant guild structure in the montane Atlantic forest of southeastern Brazil. Biol Conserv 91:119–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tabarelli M, Pinto LP, Silva JMC, Hirota M, Bede L (2005) Challenges and opportunities for biodiversity conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Conserv Biol 19:695–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Terborgh J, Lopez L, Nuñes P, Rao M, Shahabuddin G, Orihuela G, Riveros M, Ascanio R, Adler GH, Lambert TD (2001) Ecological meltdown in predator-free forest fragments. Science 294(5548):1923–1926PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Valverde O (1958) Estudo regional da zona da mata de Minas Gerais. Revista Brasileira de Geografia 20:3–82Google Scholar
  50. Vellend M, Verheyen K, Jacquemyn H, Kolb A, Van Calster H, Peterken G, Hermy M (2006) Extinction debt of forest plants persists for more than a century following habitat fragmentation. Ecology 87:542–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vieira S, Camargo PB, Selhorst D, Silva R, Hutyra L, Chambers JQ, Foster Brown I, Higuchi N, Santos J, Wofsy SC, Trumbore SE, Martinelli LA (2004) Forest Structure and carbon dynamics in Amazonian tropical rain forest. Oecologia 140:468–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Werneck MD, Franceschinelli EV (2004) Dynamics of a dry forest fragment after the exclusion of human disturbance in southeastern Brazil. Plant Ecol 174:337–346Google Scholar
  53. Williams-Linera G (1990) Vegetation structure and environmental conditions of forest edges in Panama. J Ecol 78(2):356–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Whitmore TC, Burslem DFRP (1998) Major disturbances in tropical rainforests. In: Newbery DM, Prins HHT, Brown ND (eds) Dynamics of tropical communities. Blackwell, Oxford England, pp 549–565Google Scholar
  55. Wood SN, Augustin NH (2002) GAM with integrated model selection using penalized regression splines and applications to environmental modeling. Ecol Model 157:157–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pedro Higuchi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ary T. Oliveira-Filho
    • 3
  • Daniel P. Bebber
    • 4
  • Nick D. Brown
    • 4
  • Ana Carolina Silva
    • 1
  • Evandro L. M. Machado
    • 3
  1. 1.Forestry DepartmentSanta Catarina State UniversityLagesBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Engenharia FlorestalUDESC/LAGESLagesBrazil
  3. 3.Forestry DepartmentFederal University of LavrasLavrasBrazil
  4. 4.Plant Science DepartmentUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations