Plant Ecology

, Volume 199, Issue 1, pp 43–54 | Cite as

Age structure and spatial patterning of Trillium populations in old-growth forests



We investigated the spatial cohort structure of Trillium populations in old-growth cove forests in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (TN, USA). We mapped the locations of all Trilliumerectum L., Trillium grandiflorum (Michaux) Salisbury, and Trillium vaseyi Harbison occurring within two 10 × 10 m sample plots at each of three old-growth sites—Anthony Creek, Cove Mountain, and Kalanu Prong. The height and life stage of each individual were recorded and a randomly selected subset was excavated for age determination. Our results suggest that Trillium populations in cove forests of the southern Appalachians display a high degree of spatial aggregation and are relatively stable, spatially, over long time periods (i.e., decades). Individual patches (aggregations of plants) within populations were typically multi-aged and no clear spatial cohort structure was observed. Surprisingly, more isolated plants (distal from large aggregations) were among the oldest plants in the population, rather than recent colonists dispersing away from parent populations. Individual species were less mingled than expected given that they share a common dispersal agent (ants). This study provides a double-baseline for Trillium population structure in old, primary forests with low browse pressure.


Cove forest Great Smoky Mountains National Park Myrmecochorous forest herbs Spatial cohort structure 



We would like to thank the National Park Service and the research staff at Great Smoky Mountains National Park, especially Keith Langdon and Janet H. Rock, for logistical support and helpful advice during the conception and implementation of this research. Janet H. Rock also assisted with data collection at Cove Mountain, and Maggie Patrick assisted with data entry. Helpful comments on an earlier version of this manuscript were provided by Becky Nichols, Keith Langdon, Jason Fridley, and Nate Sanders.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Forest Resources and Environmental ScienceMichigan Technological UniversityHoughtonUSA
  2. 2.National Park Service, Great Smoky Mountains National ParkTwin Creeks Natural Resources CenterGatlinburgUSA

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