Plant Ecology

, Volume 195, Issue 2, pp 235–256 | Cite as

Taxonomy and ecology of Castanea sativa Mill. forests in Greece

  • Pavlos Konstantinidis
  • Georgios Tsiourlis
  • Panteleimon Xofis
  • G. Peter Buckley
Article

Abstract

Castanea sativa Mill. is an important species of the Balkan Peninsula with high ecological and economic value. This article contributes to a phytosociological synsystematic approach of the C. sativa plant communities in Greece that covers the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula and describes the ecological parameters involved in their distribution and taxonomy. Phytosociological data have been collected from 14 mountainous areas across continental Greece, which are considered representative of the main forest types of C. sativa in the area. The 14 mountains demonstrate a variety of environmental conditions. Five communities (associations) and seven sub-communities (sub-associations) have been identified and described using TWINSPAN, Corespondence Analysis and the Braun-Blanquet classification scheme.

Castanea sativa (chestnut) forests of Greece can be distinguished as three broad groups, defined primarily by their geographical distribution. In northern and central Greece chestnut stands are characterized by their high floristic homogeneity, which is reflected in the identification of only one community per region. Chestnut forests in northern Greece, in particular, exhibit strong floristic similarities with those of the rest of the Balkans. In southern Greece, on the other hand, the southern distribution limit of chestnut in the Balkans, there is a greater floristic diversity between the sampled mountains which is reflected in the presence of three confirmed communities and two sub-associations.

Several factors have been identified as important in determining the structure and floristic composition of chestnut forests in Greece. Whilst climate and the grazing regime are influential, the degree of silvicultural management appears to be the most important factor determining the floristic composition of chestnut forests and their long-term sustainability.

Keywords

Castanetum sativae Correspondence analysis Forest ecology Quercus frainetto TWINSPAN 

References

  1. Anonymous (1992) Results of the First National Inventory of the Forests. Ministry of Agriculture/General Secretary of Forests and Natural Environment (ed.). Athens, 134 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Arrigoni PV, Marras G (1990) Phytosociology and structure of C. sativa woods in central Sardinia. Webbia 44(2):217–231Google Scholar
  3. Arrigoni PV, Di Tommaso PL, Camarda I, Satta V (1996) La vegetazione dell’azienda forestale “Uatzo” (Sardegna centrale). Parlatorea 1:61–72Google Scholar
  4. Arrigoni PV, Viciani D (2001) Structural and phytosociological features of the Tuscan C. sativa woods. Parlatorea 5:55–99Google Scholar
  5. Asciuto G, Crescimanno M, Raimondo A (1988) Il castagno in Sicilia. (The C. sativa in Sicily). (In Italian, Abstr: English, French, German). Cellulosa e Carta 39(2):4–11Google Scholar
  6. Athanasiadis N (1986) Plant phytosociology (in Greek). Giahoudi-Giapouli, Thessaloniki, 110 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Bacchetta G, Iiriti G, Pontecorvo C, Serra G, Vacca A (2004) Relationships between soils, climate and vegetation in Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. woods of Sardinia (Italy). EUROSOIL (2004). Freiburg, 4–12/9/04Google Scholar
  8. Bennet KD, Tzedakis PC, Willesk KJ (1991) Quaternary refugia of the North Europeans trees. J Biogeogr 18:103–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bergmeier E (1984) Zur Vegetation in Thessalien (Griechenland) am Beispiel des gebietes “Kato Olympos” Diplomarbeit im Fach Biologie Justus Liebig Univercity GiebenGoogle Scholar
  10. Bergmeier E (1988) Floristic notes on the Kato Olympos area (NE Thessaly, Greece). Willdenowia 17:37–58Google Scholar
  11. Bergmeier E (1990) Wälder und Gebüsche des Niederen Olymp. (Karo Olympos), NO Thessalien). Ein Beitrag zur systematischen und orographischen Vegetationsglieburg Griechenlands. Phytocoenologia 18:161–342Google Scholar
  12. Bergmeier E, Dimopoulos P (2001) Fagus silvatica forest vegetation in Greece: syntaxonomy and gradient analysis. J Veg Sci 12:109–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Braun-Blanquet J (1964) Pflanzensoziologie-Grundzüge der Vegetionskunde. 3. Auflage, WienGoogle Scholar
  14. Cobos-Suarez P (1989) Phytopathology of C. sativa (C. sativa Miller.). Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal. Fuera de Serie 16:11–29Google Scholar
  15. Cutini A (2001) New management options in C. sativa coppices: an evaluation on ecological bases. Forest Ecol Manag 141(3):165–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dafis S (1966) [Statmologikes kai dasoapodotikes ereynes se premnofyi dryothasi kai kastanota tis BA Chalkidikis] (in Greek). Thessaloniki, 120 pp.Google Scholar
  17. Dafis S (1972) Forest phytosociology. (In Greek). Thessaloniki, 117 pp.Google Scholar
  18. Dafis S (1975) Vegetationsgliederung Griechenlands. Veröff. Geobot. Instit. ETH. Stiftung Rübel, Zürich 55:23–36Google Scholar
  19. Devillers-Terschuren P, Devillers-Terschuren J (2001) Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats. Application and development of the Palaearctic habitat classification in the course of the setting up of the Emerald Project. Council of Europe–Croatia–Strasbourg, 5 February 2001 T-PVS/Emerald (2001) 10Google Scholar
  20. Diapoulis C (1939–1949) [Flora of Greece] (in Greek). 1- 3, AthensGoogle Scholar
  21. Di Martino V (2001) L’avifauna dei castagneti del parco nazionale del Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga: indicatori per la gestione. Università degli Studi di Camerino, RIASSUNTI, pp 19–21Google Scholar
  22. Dimoulas I (1986) The chestnut. Edit. Agricultural Bank of Greece, Athens, 214 p.Google Scholar
  23. Dinic A, Misic V, Jovanovic V, Kalinic M (1998). Forest of sweet (Castanea sativa Mill.) in the surrounding of Vranje [Serbia, Yugoslavia], its significance and protection. Protec Nature 50:341–345Google Scholar
  24. Ellenberg H (1988) Vegetation ecology of Central Europe, 4th edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  25. Em H (1960) Edelkastanien—Waldgesellschaften im Belasica-Gebirge (V. R. Mazedonien). Acta museum Macedonica Scientific Nastural. Scopje: 89–103Google Scholar
  26. Fineschi S, Taurchini D, Villani F, Vendramin G (2000) Chloroplast DNA polymorphism reveals little geographical structure in C. sativa Mill. (Fagaceae) throughout southern European countries. Mol Ecol 9:1495–1503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gamisans J (1977) La végétation des montagnes corses. Deuxième partie. Phytocoenologia 4(1):35 –131Google Scholar
  28. Gamisans J, Hebrard D (1979). A propos de la vegetation des forets d’Epire et de Macedoine Grecque occidentale. Documents Phytococio. Lille 4:289–341Google Scholar
  29. Gamisans J, Hebrard D (1980) A propos de la vegetation des forets en Grece du nord-est (Macedoine orientale et Thrace occidentale). Documents Phytococio. Lille 5:243–289Google Scholar
  30. Gamisans J (1999) La végétation de la Corse. Edisud, Aix-en-ProvenceGoogle Scholar
  31. Ganiatsas K (1939) [Botanic investigation in Vermion Mt.] (in Greek). Scientific yearbook of Physic and mathematic departure of Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, ThessalonikiGoogle Scholar
  32. Ganiatsas K (1963) [Vegetation and flora of Athos Peninsula] (in Greek). Athoniki Politia, Thessaloniki, pp 509–678Google Scholar
  33. Ganiatsas K (1967) [Phytogeography] (in Greek). Thessaloniki, 548 p.Google Scholar
  34. Grebenščikov O (1950) O vegetaciji centralnog dela Stare planine. Zbornik radova SAN 2, Institut za ekologiju i biogeografiju 1:1–36Google Scholar
  35. Grisebach A (1841) Reise durch Rumelien und nach Brussa im Jahre 1839. GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  36. Gauch HG (1982) Multivariate analysis in community ecology. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Hill MO (1973) Reciprocal Averaging: An eigenvector method of ordination. J Ecol 61:237–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hill MO (1974) Correspondence analysis: a neglected multivariate method. Appl Stat 23:340–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hill MO (1979) TWINSPAN-a Fortran program for arranging multivariate data in an ordered two way table by classification of the individuals and the attributes Cornell University, Department of Ecology and Systematics., Ithaca, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Hill MO, Bunce RGH, Shaw MW (1975) Indicator Species Analysis, a divisive polythetic method of classification, and its application to a survey of native pinewoods in Scotland. J Ecol 63:597–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hewitt GM (1996) Some genetic consequences of ice ages and their role in divergence and speciation. Biol J Linn Soc 58:247 276Google Scholar
  42. Horvat I, Clavac V, Ellenberg H (1974) Vegetation Südosteuropas, Stuttgart, 660 pp.Google Scholar
  43. Hruska K (1988) I castagneti dei Monti della Laga (Italia Centrale in Studi sulla flora e vegetazione d’Italia, Braun-Blanquetia 2:117–125Google Scholar
  44. Huntley B, Birks HJB (1983) An atlas of past and present pollen maps for Europe: 0-13 000 Years Ago. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  45. Karagiannakidou-Iatropoulou V (1983) [Standort Forschung in der Querco-Fagetea Zone des Chortiatis-Massivsenthalten] (in Greek). Thesis. Thessaloniki, 160 pp.Google Scholar
  46. Kargioğlu M (1988) [Iç Bati Anadolu ’dan Iki Birlik (Querco cerridis-Coryletum avellanae ve Querco pubescenti-Castanetum sativae)]. XIV.Ulusal Biyoloji Kongresi (7-10 Eylül): 16–29Google Scholar
  47. Kavvadas D (1956-1964) [Illustrated Botanical —Phytological Lexicon] I-IX (in Greek). AthensGoogle Scholar
  48. Keller W, Wohlgemut T, Kuhn N, Schütz M, Wildi O (1999) Waldgesellschaften der Schweiz. auf floristische Grundlage. Mitt. Eidgenöss. Forsch. anst. Wald Schnee Landsch 73(2):91–357Google Scholar
  49. Korakis G, Athanasiadis N (2003) The phytosociological units of C. sativa Mill. in Paiko Massif. Proceedings of the 11o conference Greek Forestry Association, pp 615–624Google Scholar
  50. Lombardi L, Viciani D (2003) Analisi del paesaggio vegetale nel psic “Pascoli Montani e cespuglieti del pratomagno”. Conservazione delle praterie montane dell’ Appennino Toscano-Progetto N. LIFE00 NAT/IT/7239Google Scholar
  51. Matovic M (1993) Ecological characteristics of the European C. sativa (C. sativa Mill.) on the habitats in Serbia (Yugoslavia). Zastita prirode (Yugoslavia), (1993–1994), 46–47: 77–85Google Scholar
  52. Mattfeld J (1927) Aus Wald und Macchie in Griechenland. Mitt. Deutsch. Dedrol. Ges 38:106–151Google Scholar
  53. Mayer H (1974) Wälder des Ostalpenraumes. Gustav Fischer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  54. Mueller-Dombois D, Ellenberg H (1974) Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. John Willey & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  55. Oberdorfer E (1948) Gliederung und Umgrenzung der Mittelmeervegetation auf der Balkanhalbinsel. Ber Geobot Forschungsinst Rübel Zürich 1974:84–111Google Scholar
  56. Olivier L, Galland JP, Nmaurin H, Roux P-P (eds) (1995) Livre Rouge de la Flore Menacé de France, I. Espéces Prioritaires. Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Conservatoire Botanique National de Porquerolles and Ministère de l’Environnement, Paris, 486Google Scholar
  57. Özel N (1999) Kaz Dağları Orman Vejetasyonu Üzerine Fitososyolojik Ve Fitoekolojik Araştırmalar, Ege Ormancılık Araştırma Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü, Teknik Bülten Serisi No:11, İzmir. Phytosociologic and Phytoecologic Studies on Forest Vegetation in KazdağlarıGoogle Scholar
  58. Ovari M (1998) The vegetation of Gos Hill and neighbouring areas. Kanitzia, Research Report Series, Bio Tar 6:111–120Google Scholar
  59. Petermann J (1999) Winterkahle Eichenwalder im Western der griechisen Rhodopen. Vegetation und Dynamik. Verlag Natur & Wissen schafft, Munster, 152 pGoogle Scholar
  60. Pignatti S (1982) Flora d’ Italian, vol. 3. Bologne, EdagricoleGoogle Scholar
  61. Rauh W (1949) Klimatologie und Vegetationsverhältnisse der Athos-Halbinsel und der ostägäischen Inseln Lemnos, Evstratios, Mytiline und Chios. Silzungsber. Heidelberger Akad. Wiss., Math. Naturwiss Kl: 511–615Google Scholar
  62. Raus T (1980) Die Vegetation Ostthessaliens (Griechenland). In: III. Querco-Fagetea und azonale Gehölzgesellschaften. Bot Jahrb Syst 101:313–361Google Scholar
  63. Regel C (1943). Phlanzengeographische Studien aus Griechenland und Westanatolien. Bot Jahrb Syst 73:1–98Google Scholar
  64. Rexhepi F (1991) Fitocenoza Oraha I Pitomog Kestena (Juglando-Castanetum Sativae Rexhepi 1990) Na Kosovu. Zbornik Radova Sa Simpozijuma Nedeljko Košanin I Botaniĉke Nauke: 98–105Google Scholar
  65. Rexhepi F (1994) The vegetation of Kosova [Vegjetacioni i Kosovës (hartografimi dhe hulumtimi fitocenologjik]. Universiteti i Prishtinës, Fakultetii i Shkencave të Naturës, PrishtinëGoogle Scholar
  66. Rivas-Martínez S (1975) Mapa de vegetación de la provincia de Avila. Anal Inst Bot Cavanilles 32(2): 1493–1556Google Scholar
  67. Rubio A, Gandullo JM (1994) Comparative ecological analysis of C. sativa (C. sativa Miller) forests in Extremadura and Astur-Cantabrian regions (Spain). Investigacion Agraria. Sistemas y Recursos Forestales (Espana), (Dic. 1994) 3(2):111–124Google Scholar
  68. Rubio A, Elena R, Blanco A, Sanchez F, Gomez V, Sanchez O (1999) Autoecology of sweet-C. sativa stands in Catalonia (Spain). Investigacion Agraria. Sistemas y Recursos Forestales (Espana) 8(2):387–405Google Scholar
  69. Rudski I (1936) O vegetaciji Planine Ošljaka. Glasnik Hrvatskog prirodoslovnog društva 41–48:118–146 Google Scholar
  70. Smith RD, Smith KA (ed) (2003) Country Study for Biodiversity of the Republic of Macedonia (First National Report). Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning Skopje, July, 2003. SkopjeGoogle Scholar
  71. Stojanov N, Kitanov B (1950) Rastitelnit. otnošenija na ostrov Tasos. Izv Bot Inst (Sofia) 1:214–357Google Scholar
  72. Taberlet P, Fumagalli L, Wust-Saucy AG, Cosson JF (1998) Comparative phylogeography and postglacial colonization routes in Europe. Mol Ecol 7:453–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tomašević D (1959) Tipovi šuma i njihovi degradacioni oblici na Vodnu (II). God. Zbor. na Zemjodel. Šumar. Fak. na Univer. Skopje 12 SkopjeGoogle Scholar
  74. Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA (eds) (1964–1980) Flora Europea. 1–5. CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  75. Ubaldi D, Corticelli S, Rondini R (1995) Carta della vegetazione 1:25.000 del versante romagnolo del Parco Nazionale delle Foreste Casentinesi, M. Falterona, Campigna. Regione Emilia-RomagnaGoogle Scholar
  76. Viciani D, Gabellini A (2000) Contributo alla conoscenza della vegetazione del Pratomagno (Toscana orientale): le praterie di crinale ed il complesso forestale regionale del versantecasentinese. WebbiaGoogle Scholar
  77. Zohary D, Hopf M (1988) Domestication of plants in the old world. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  78. Zoller H (1960) Pollenanalytische Untersuchungen zur Vegetationsgeschichte der insubrischen Schweiz. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 83:157 pp.Google Scholar
  79. Zoller H, Geissler P, Athanasiadis N (1977) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Wälder, Moos und Flechtenassoziationen in den Gebirgen Nordgriechenlands. Basel Bauhinia 6(1):215–255Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pavlos Konstantinidis
    • 1
  • Georgios Tsiourlis
    • 1
  • Panteleimon Xofis
    • 2
  • G. Peter Buckley
    • 2
  1. 1.NAGREF Forest Research InstituteThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Imperial College LondonFaculty of Natural SciencesAshford, KentUK

Personalised recommendations