Advertisement

Plant Ecology

, Volume 189, Issue 2, pp 175–186 | Cite as

Floral distribution, clonal structure, and their effects on pollination success in a self-incompatible Convallaria keiskei population in northern Japan

  • Kiwako Araki
  • Kenichiro Shimatani
  • Masashi Ohara
Original Paper

Abstract

In plant species, when clonal growth produces a patchy structure and flowering ramets are clustered, the amount of pollen contributing to reproductive success is often regulated by pollinator efficiency and geitonogamy. The spatial population structure may influence reproductive success. We examined the clonal structure, the spatial ramet distribution, and their combined effects on fruit set in a natural population of the insect-pollinated, self-incompatible clonal herb, Convallaria keiskei, in northern Japan. The number of shoots, flowers, and fruits in 1-m2 quadrats were counted at every 5 m grid point in an established 100 × 90-m study plot. From all the quadrats where shoots existed, leaf samples were collected for allozyme analysis. Using the two spatial parameters of flowering ramet densities and genotypes, we then constructed individual-based fruit-set models. A total of 236 quadrats contained shoots, and 135 contained flowering ramets, which indicated expanded distribution of this plant throughout the study plot, while shoots, flowers and fruits all showed clustering distributions. Allozyme analysis of 282 samples revealed 94 multilocus genotypes. The largest clone extended to more than 40 m, whereas 56 genotypes were detected in only one sample. Several large clones and many small clones were distributed close to each other. Fine-scale spatial modelling revealed that the neighbouring flower numbers of different genotypes, compared with local genet or flower diversity, more influenced fruit set, in which the range of the neighbour was 14.5 m. These findings indicate that the compatible pollen dispersed by insect pollinators has a significant effect on sexual reproduction, in this C. keiskei population. Consequently, the spatial structure, which includes both genet distribution and clonal expansion by ramets, had a significant effect on pollination success.

Keywords

Clonal plant Floral density Fruit set Reproductive success Self-incompatibility Spatial distribution 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the staffs at the Nakasatsunai village office for providing supports with our study. We also thank to Dr. Tomimatsu for providing useful comments on the manuscript. This study was supported by Grants-in Aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Nos. 15370006, 15780112, and 1637007); the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology for the 21st COE Program (E-01), Japan; ISM Cooperative Research Program (17-ISM-CRP-2063); the Sasakawa Scientific Research Grant from the Japan Science Society; the foundation for Earth Environment; and the Suhara Memorial Foundation.

References

  1. Araki K, Yamada E, Ohara M (2005) Breeding system and floral visitor of Convallaria keiskei. Plant Species Biol 20:151–155Google Scholar
  2. Ashworth L, Galetto L (2001) Pollinators and reproductive success of the wild cucurbit Cucurbita maxima ssp. andreana (Cucurbitaceae). Plant Biol 3:398–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bayer RJ (1990) Patterns of clonal diversity in the Antennaria rosea (Asteraceae) polyploid agamic complex. Am J Bot 77:1313–1319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beattie AJ (1976) Plant dispersion, pollination and gene flow in Viola. Oecologia 25:291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brody AK, Mitchell RJ (1997) Effects of experimental manipulation of inflorescence size on pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation in the hummingbird-pollinated plant Ipomopsis aggregata. Oecologia 110:86–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Charpentier A (2002) Consequences of clonal growth for plant mating. Evol Ecol 15:521–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Choung Y (1994) Clonal structure and ramet growth of lily-of-the-valley. Convallaria keiskei. Bull Ecol Soc Am 75:2–37Google Scholar
  8. Crawford DJ (1983) Phylogenetic and systematic inferences from electrophoretic studies. In: Tanksley SD, Orton TJ (eds) Isozymes in plant genetics and breeding, Part A. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, pp 257–287Google Scholar
  9. Cressie N (1991) Statistics for spatial data. John Wiley and Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Davis BJ (1964) Disk electrophoresis II: method and application to human serum proteins. Ann NY Acad Sci 121:404–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eckert CG (1999) Clonal plant research: proliferation. integration but not much evolution. Am J Bot 86:1649–1654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eckert CG (2000) Contributions of autogamy and geitonogamy to self-fertilization in a mass-flowering, clonal plant. Ecology 81:532–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ellstrand NC, Roose ML (1987) Patterns of genotypic diversity in clonal plant species. Am J Bot 74:123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eriksson O (1999) Seed size variation and its effect on germination and seedling performance in the clonal herb Convallaria majalis. Acta Oecol 20:61–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eriksson O, Bremer B (1993) Genet dynamics of the clonal plant Rubus saxatilis. J Ecol 81:533–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Evans JP, Cain ML (1995) A spatially explicit test of foraging behavior in a clonal plant. Ecology 76:1147–1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Feinsinger P, Tiebout III HM, Young BE (1991) Do tropical bird-pollinated plants exhibit density-dependent interactions? Field experiments. Ecology 72:1953–1963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fischer M, van Kleunen M (2002) On the evolution of clonal plant life histories. Evol Ecol 15:565–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gómez JM, Zamora R (1999) Generalization vs specialization in the pollination system of Hormathophylla spinosa (Cruciferae). Ecology 80:796–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gottlieb LD (1981) Electrophoretic evidence and plant populations. Prog Phytochem 7:1–45Google Scholar
  21. Gottlieb LD (1982) Conservation and duplication of isozymes in plants. Science 216:373–380CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Handel SN (1985) The intrusion of clonal growth patterns on plant breeding systems. Am Nat 125:367–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harder LD, Barrett SCH (1995) Mating cost of large floral displays in hermaphrodite plants. Nature 373:512– 515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Harper JL (1977) Population biology of plants. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Herrera CM (1996) Floral traits and plant adaptation to insect pollinators: a devil’s advocate approach. In: Lloyd DGB, Barrett SCH (eds) Floral biology: studies on floral evolution in animal-pollinated plants. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 65–87Google Scholar
  26. Holderegger R, Stehlik I, Schneller JJ (1998) Estimation of the relative importance of sexual and vegetative reproduction in the clonal woodland herb Anemone nemorosa. Oecologia 117:105–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hutchings MJ, de Kroon H (1994) Foraging in plants: the role of morphological plasticity in resource acquisition. Adv Ecol Res 25:159–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Klimeš L, Klimešová J (1999) CLO-PLA2 – a database of clonal plants in central Europe. Plant Ecol 141:9–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Klimeš L, Klimešová J, Hendriks R, van Groenendael J (1997) Clonal plant architecture: a comparative analysis of form and function. In: de Kroon H, van Groenendael J (eds) The ecology and evolution of clonal plants. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp 1–29Google Scholar
  30. Klinkhamer PGL, de Jong TJ, de Bruyn GJ (1989) Plant size and pollinator visitation in Cynoglossum officinale. Oikos 54:201–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Komarov VL (1949) Izbrannye sochineniia 3. Akadmiia Nauk, Moscow, pp 449–450Google Scholar
  32. Kudoh H, Shibaike H, Takasu H, Whigham DF, Kawano S (1999) Genet structure and determinants of clonal structure in a temperate deciduous woodland herb, Uvularia perfoliata. J Ecol 87:244–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kunin WE (1993) Sex and the single mustard: population density and pollinator behavior effects on seed-set. Ecology 74:2145–2160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lovett-Doust L (1981) Population dynamics and local specialization in a clonal perennial (Ranunculus repens). I. The dynamics of ramets in contrasting habitats. J Ecol 69:743–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Murren CJ (2002) Effects of habitat fragmentation on pollination: pollinators. pollinia viability and reproductive success. J Ecol 90:100–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nuortila C, Tuomi J, Laine K (2002) Inter-parent distance affects reproductive success in two clonal dwarf shrubs, Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea (Ericaceae). Can J Bot 80:875-884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Orstein L (1964) Disk electrophoresis. I. Background and theory. Ann NY Acad Sci 121:321–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Parks JC, Werth CR (1993) A study of spatial features of clones in a population of bracken fern. Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae). Am J Bot 80:537–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pleasants JM, Wendel JF (1989) Genetic diversity in a clonal narrow endemic, Erythronium propullans, and its widespread progenitor, Erythronium albidium. Am J Bot 76:1136–1151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Price EAC, Marshall C (1999) Clonal plants and environmental heterogeneity. Plant Ecol 141:3–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ruggiero MV, Reusch TBH, Procaccini G (2005) Local genetic structure in a clonal dioecious angiosperm. Mol Ecol 14:957–967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schemske DW, Horvitz CC (1984) Variation among floral visitors in pollination ability: a precondition for mutualism specialization. Science 225:519–521CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Shiraishi S (1988) Inheritance of isozyme variations in Japanese black pine, Pinus thunbergii Parl. Silvae Genet 37:93–100Google Scholar
  44. Sih A, Baltus MS (1987) Patch size, pollinator behavior, and pollinator limitation in catnip. Ecology 68:1679–1690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Silander JA (1985) Microevolution in clonal plants. In: Jackson JBC, Buss LW, Cook RE (eds) Population biology and evolution of clonal organisms. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 107–152Google Scholar
  46. Somanathan H, Borges RM, Chakravarthy VS (2004) Does neighborhood floral display matter? Fruit set in carpenter bee-pollinated Heterophragma quadriloculare and beetle-pollinated Lasiosiphon eriocephalus. Biotropica 36:139–147Google Scholar
  47. Stehlik I, Holderegger R (2000) Spatial genetic structure and clonal diversity of Anemone nemorosa in late successional deciduous woodlands of central Europe. J Ecol 88:424–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stuefer JF (1996) Potential and limitations of current concepts regarding the response of clonal plants to␣environmental heterogeneity. Vegetatio 127:245–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Thompson JD (2001) How do visitation patterns vary among pollinators in relation to floral display and floral design in a generalist pollination system? Oecologia 126:386–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Utech FH, Kawano S (1976) Floral vascular anatomy of Convallaria majalis L. and C. keiskei Miq. (Liliaceae-Convallariinae). Bot Mag Tokyo 89:173–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Watkinson AR, Powell JL (1993) Seedling recruitment and the maintenance of clonal diversity in plant populations – a computer simulation of Ranunculus repens. J Ecol 81:707–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Widén B, Cronberg N, Widén M (1994) Genotypic diversity, molecular markers and spatial distribution of genets in clonal plants, a literature survey. Folia Geobot Phytotaxon 29:245–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wijesinghe DK and Hutchings MJ (1997) The effects of spatial scale of environmental heterogeneity on the growth of a clonal plant: an experimental study with Glechoma hederacea. J Ecol 85:17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wilcock CC, Jennings SB (1999) Partner limitation and restoration of sexual reproduction in the clonal dwarf shrub Linnaea borealis L. (Caprifoliaceae). Protoplasma 208:76–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wolf AT, Harrison SP, Hamrick JL (2000) Influence of habitat patchiness on genetic diversity and spatial structure of a serpentine endemic plant. Conserv Biol 14:454–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ziegenhagen B, Bialozyt R, Kuhlenkamp V, Schulze I, Ulrich A, Wulf M (2003) Spatial patterns of maternal lineages and clones of Galium odoratum in a large ancient woodland: inferences about seedling recruitment. J Ecol 91:578–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kiwako Araki
    • 1
  • Kenichiro Shimatani
    • 2
  • Masashi Ohara
    • 1
  1. 1.Course in Ecological Genetics, Graduate School of Environmental ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  2. 2.The Institute of Statistical MathematicsTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations