Plant Ecology

, Volume 188, Issue 2, pp 215–234

Seed Banks in Arid Wetlands with Contrasting Flooding, Salinity and Turbidity Regimes

  • John L. Porter
  • Richard T. Kingsford
  • Margaret A. Brock
Original Paper


Aquatic plant communities in arid zone wetlands underpin diverse fauna populations and ecosystem functions yet are relatively poorly known. Erratic flooding, drying, salinity and turbidity regimes contribute to habitat complexity, creating high spatial and temporal variability that supports high biodiversity. We compared seed bank density, species richness and community composition of aquatic plants (submergent, floating-leaved and emergent) among nine Australian arid zone wetlands. Germinable seed banks from wetlands within the Paroo and Bulloo River catchments were examined at nested scales (site, wetland, wetland type) using natural flooding and salinity regimes as factors with nondormant seed density and species richness as response variables. Salinity explained most of the variance in seed density (95%) and species richness (68%), with flooding accounting for 5% of variance in seed density and 32% in species richness. Salinity-flooding interactions were significant but explained only a trivial portion of the variance (<1%). Mean seed densities in wetlands ranged from 40 to 18,760 m−2 and were highest in wetlands with intermediate levels of salinity and flooding. Variability of densities was high (CVs 0.61–2.66), particularly in saline temporary and fresh permanent wetlands. Below salinities of c. 30 g l−1 TDS, seed density was negatively correlated to turbidity and connectivity. Total species richness of wetlands (6–27) was negatively correlated to salinity, pH and riverine connectivity. A total of 40 species germinated, comprising submergent (15 species), floating-leaved or amphibious (17 species), emergent (6 species) and terrestrial (6 species) groups. Charophytes were particularly important with 10 species (five Chara spp., four Nitella spp. and Lamprothamnium macropogon), accounting for 68% of total abundance. Saline temporary wetlands were dominated by Ruppia tuberosa, Lamprothamnium macropogon and Lepilaena preissii. Variable flooding and drying regimes profoundly altered water quality including salinity and turbidity, producing distinctive aquatic plant communities as reflected by their seed banks. This reinforces the importance of hydrology in shaping aquatic biological communities in arid systems.


Charophyte Macrophyte  Aquatic plant Temporary wetland  Permanent wetland Dryland wetland 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abernethy VJ, Wilby NJ (1999) Changes along a disturbance gradient in the density and composition of propagule banks in floodplain aquatic habitats. Plant Ecol 140:177–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akhurst JG, Breen CM (1988) Ionic content as a factor influencing turbidity in two floodplain lakes after a flood. Hydrobiologia 160:19–31Google Scholar
  3. Amezaga JM, Santamaría L, Green AJ (2002) Biotic wetland connectivity – supporting a new approach for wetland policy. Acta Oecol 23:213–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baskin CC, Baskin JM (1998) Seeds – Ecology, biogeography and evolution of dormancy and germination. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  5. Benoit DL, Kenkel NC, Cavers PB (1989) Factors influencing the precision of soil seed bank estimates. Can J Bot 67:2833–2840Google Scholar
  6. Bayly IA, Williams WD (1981) Inland waters and their ecology. Longman Chesire, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  7. Bigwood DW, Inouye DW (1988) Spatial pattern analysis of seed banks: an improved method and optimized sampling. Ecology 69:497–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blanch SJ, Ganf GC, Walker KF (1999a) Growth and resource allocation in response to flooding in the emergent sedge Bolboschoenus medianus. Aquat Bot 63:145–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blanch SJ, Ganf GG, Walker KF (1999b) Tolerance of riverine plants to flooding and exposure indicated by water regime. Regul Rivers Res Manage 15:43–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blanch SJ, Walker KF, Ganf GG (2000) Water regimes and littoral plants in four weir pools of the River Murray Australia. Regul Rivers Res Manage 16: 445–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blindow I, Andersson G, Hargeby A, Johansson S (1993) Long-term pattern of alterative stable states in two shallow eutrophic lakes. Freshw Biol 30: 159–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bonis A, Lepart J (1994) Vertical structure of seed banks and the impact of depth of burial on recruitment in two temporary marshes. Vegetatio 112:127–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bonis A, Lepart J, Grillas P (1995) Seed bank dynamics and co-existence of annual macrophytes in a temporary and variable habitat. Oikos 74:81–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boon PI, Brock MA (1994) Plants and processes in wetlands: a background. Aust J Mar Freshw Res 45:1369–1374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bornette G, Amoros C (1996) Disturbance regimes and vegetation dynamics: role of floods in riverine wetlands. J Veg Sci 75:615–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bornette G, Amoros C, Lamouroux NL (1998) Aquatic plant diversity in riverine wetlands: the role of connectivity. Freshw Biol 39:267–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boulton AJ, Brock MA (1999) Australian freshwater ecology: processes and management. Gleneagles Publishing, South AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  18. Boulton AJ, Jenkins KM (1998) Flood regimes and invertebrate communities in floodplain wetlands. In: Williams WD (ed) Wetlands in a dry land: understanding for management. Environment Australia, Canberra, pp 137–148Google Scholar
  19. Britton DL, Brock MA (1994) Seasonal germination from wetland seed banks. Aust J Mar Freshw Res 45:1445–1457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brock MA (1981) The ecology of halophytes in the south-east of South Australia. In: Williams WD (eds) Salt lakes: proceedings of an international symposium on athalassic (inland) salt lakes. Junk, The Hague, pp 23–32Google Scholar
  21. Brock MA (1994) Aquatic vegetation of inland wetlands. In: Groves R (eds) The vegetation of Australia. Cambridge University Press, Melbourne, pp 437–466Google Scholar
  22. Brock MA (1998) Understanding plant germination establishment and reproduction for wetland revegetation. In: Williams WD (ed) Wetlands in a dry land: understanding for management. Environment Australia Biodiversity Group, Canberra, pp 131–136Google Scholar
  23. Brock MA, Casanova MT (1991) Plant survival in temporary waters: A comparison of charophytes and angiosperms. Verh Internat Verein Limnol 24:2668–2672Google Scholar
  24. Brock MA, Casanova MT (1997) Plant life at edge of wetlands: ecological responses to wetting and drying patterns. In: Klomp N, Lunt I (eds) Frontiers in ecology: building the links. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK, pp 181–192Google Scholar
  25. Brock MA, Lane JAK (1983) The aquatic macrophyte flora of saline wetlands in Western Australia in relation to salinity and permanence. Hydrobiologia 105:63–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brock MA, Nielsen DL, Crossle K (2005) Changes in biotic communities developing from freshwater wetland sediments under experimental salinity and water regimes. Freshw Biol 50:1376–1390Google Scholar
  27. Brock MA, Nielsen DL, Shiel RJ, Green JD, Langley JD (2003) Drought and aquatic community resilience: the role of eggs and seeds in sediments of temporary wetlands. Freshw Biol 48:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brock MA, Theodore K, O’Donnell L (1994) Seed-bank methods for Australian wetlands. Aquat Bot 45: 483–493Google Scholar
  29. Capon SJ (2003) Plant community responses to wetting and drying in a large arid floodplain. River Res Appl 19:509–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Capon SJ (2005) Flood variability and spatial variation in plant community composition and structure on a large arid floodplain. J Arid Env 60:283–302Google Scholar
  31. Casanova MT (1993) The ecology of charophytes in temporary and permanent wetlands: an Australian perspective. PhD Thesis, Armidale University of New EnglandGoogle Scholar
  32. Casanova MT, Brock MA (1996) Can oospore germination patterns explain distribution in permanent and temporary wetlands ? Aquat Bot 54:297–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Casanova MT, Brock MA (2000) How do depth duration and frequency of flooding influence the establishment of wetland plant communities? Plant Ecol 147:237–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Casanova MT, Garcia A, Porter JL (2003) Charophyte rediscoveries in Australia: what and why? Acta Micropalaeontol Sin 20:129–138Google Scholar
  35. Chambers PA, Kalff J (1985) Depth distribution and biomass of submersed aquatic macrophyte communities in relation to Secchi depth. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 42:701–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Charalambidou I, Santamaria L (2002) Waterbirds as endozoochorous dispersers of aquatic organisms: a review of experimental evidence. Acta Oecol 23:165–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Clarke KR (1993) Non-parametric multivariate analysis of changes in community structure. Aust J Ecol 18:117–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Clarke KR, Ainsworth M (1993) A method of linking multivariate community structure to environmental variables. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 92:205–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Clarke KR, Gorley RN (2001) PRIMER V5: user manual/tutorial. Plymouth Marine Laboratories, Plymouth UKGoogle Scholar
  40. Clarke KR, Warwick RM (1994) Change in marine communities: an approach to statistical analysis and interpretation. Natural Environment Research Council, UKGoogle Scholar
  41. Craig AE, Walker KFW, Boulton AJ (1991) Effects of edaphic factors and flood frequency on the abundance of lignum Muehlenbeckia florulenta Meissner (Polygonaceae) on the River Murray floodplain South Australia. Aust J Bot 39:431–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Davies BR, Thoms MC, Walker KF, O’Keefe JH, Gore JA (1994) Dryland rivers: their ecology, conservation and management. In: Calow P, Petts GE (eds) The rivers handbook. Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp 484–511Google Scholar
  43. Dessaint F, Barralis G, Caixinhas ML, Mayor JP, Recasens J, Zanin G (1996) Precision of soil seedbank sampling: how many soil cores ? Weed Res 36:143–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Eggeman DR, Johnson FA, Conroy MJ, Brakhage DH (1997) Evaluation of an aerial quadrat survey for monitoring wintering duck populations. J Wildl Manage 61:403–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fukami T (2001) Sequence effects of disturbance on community structure. Oikos 92:215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Garcia A, Casanova MT (2003) Lamprothamnium heraldii sp. nov. Charales Charophyta from Australia: the first dioecious representative of the genus. Phycologia 42:622–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gehrke PC (2001) The Paroo River. In: Young WJ (ed) Rivers as ecological systems: The Murray–Darling Basin. Murray Darling Basin Commission, Canberra, pp 119–131Google Scholar
  48. Gehrke PC, Brown P, Schiller CB, Moffat DB, Bruce AM (1995) River regulation and fish communities in the Murray–Darling River system, Australia. Regul Rivers Res Manage 11:363–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gehrke PC, Schiller CB, Brown P (1999) Native fish and river flows: the Paroo perspective. In: Kingsford RT (eds) A free-flowing river: the ecology of the Paroo River. New South Wales National Parks & Wildlife Service, Hurstville, pp 201–222Google Scholar
  50. Glazebrook HS, Robertson AI (1999) The effect of flooding and flood timing on leaf litter breakdown rates and nutrient dynamics in a river red gum Eucalyptus camaldulensis forest. Aust J Ecol 24:625–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Green AJ, Figuerola J, Sanchez MI (2002) Implications of waterbird ecology for the dispersal of aquatic organisms. Acta Oecol 23:177–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Grillas P, Battedou G (1998) Effects of flooding date on the biomass, species composition and seed production in submerged macrophyte beds in temporary marshes in the Camargue (S. France). In: McComb AJ, Davis JA (eds) Wetlands for the future. Gleneagles Publishing, Adelaide, pp 207–218Google Scholar
  53. Grillas P, Garcia-Murillo P, Geertz-Hansen O, Marba N, Montes C, Duarte CM, Tan Ham L, Grossman A (1993) Submerged macrophyte seed bank in a Mediterranean temporary marsh: abundance and relationship with established vegetation. Oecologia 94:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Halse SA, Pearson GB, Kay WR (1998) Arid zone networks in time and space: waterbird use of Lake Gregory in north-western Australia. Int J Ecol Environ Sci 24:207–222Google Scholar
  55. Harden GJ (1990) Flora of New South Wales. I New South Wales University Press, Sydney, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  56. Harden GJ (1991) Flora of New South Wales. New South Wales University Press, II Sydney, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  57. Harden GJ (1992) Flora of New South Wales. New South Wales University Press, III Sydney, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  58. Harden GJ (1993) Flora of New South Wales. New South Wales University Press, IV Sydney, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  59. Haukos DA, Smith LM (2001) Temporal emergence patterns of seedlings from Playa wetlands. Wetlands 21:274–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Healey M, Thompson D, Robertson A (1997) Amphibian communities associated with billabong habitats on the Murrumbidgee floodplain Australia. Aust J Ecol 22:270–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Henry C, Amoros C, Bornette G (1996) Species traits and recolonization processes after flood disturbance in riverine macrophytes. Vegetatio 12:13–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jenkins KM, Boulton AJ (2003) Ecological connectivity in a dryland river: short-term aquatic microinvertebrate recruitment following floodplain inundation. Ecology 84:2708–2723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jessop JP, Toelken HR (1986) Flora of South Australia. IV South Australian Government Printing Division, Adelaide, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  64. Jolly ID, Walker GR (1996) Is the field water use of Eucalyptus largiflorens F. Muell. affected by short-term flooding? Aust J Ecol 21:173–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kingsford RT (1995) Occurrence of high concentrations of waterbirds in arid Australia. J Arid Environ 29:421–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kingsford RT (1999) Aerial survey of waterbirds on wetlands as a measure of river and floodplain health. Freshw Biol 41:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kingsford RT, Bedward M, Porter JL (1994) Wetlands and waterbirds in northwestern Occasional Paper 19. New South Wales National Parks and Wildllife Service, Hurstville, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  68. Kingsford RT, Brandis K, Thomas R, Crighton P, Knowles E, Gale E (2004a) Classifying landform at broad spatial scales: the distribution and conservation of wetlands in New South Wales, Australia. Mar Freshw Res 55:17–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kingsford RT, Curtin AL, Porter J (1999) Water flows on Cooper Creek in arid Australia determine ‘boom’ and ‘bust’ periods for waterbirds. Biol Conserv 88:231–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kingsford RT, Jenkins KM, Porter JL (2004b) Imposed hydrological stability on lakes in arid australia and effects on waterbirds. Ecology 85:2478–2492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kingsford RT, Porter JL (1994) Waterbirds on an adjacent freshwater lake and salt lake in arid Australia. Biol Conserv 69:219–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kingsford RT, Porter J (1999) Wetlands and waterbirds of the Paroo and Warrego Rivers. In: Kingsford RT (ed) A free-flowing River: the ecology of the Paroo River. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, pp 23–50Google Scholar
  73. Kingsford RT, Thomas RF, Curtin AL (2001) Conservation of wetlands in the Paroo and Warrego River catchments in arid Australia. Pac Conserv Biol 7:21–33Google Scholar
  74. Lake PS (2000) Disturbance patchiness and diversity in streams. J N Am Benthol Soc 19:573–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lake P (2003) Ecological effects of perturbation by drought in flowing waters. Freshw Biol 48:1161–1172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lake PS, Barmuta LA, Boulton AJ, Campbell IC, St. Clair RM (1985) Australian streams and Northern hemisphere stream ecology: comparisons and problems. In: Dodson JR, Westoby M (eds) Are australian ecosystems different? Proceedings of the ecological society of Australia. Blackwell Scientific Book Distributors, Carlton, pp 61–82Google Scholar
  77. Lawler W, Briggs SV (1991) Breeding of Maned Duck and other waterbirds on ephemeral wetlands in north-western New South Wales. Corella 15:65–76Google Scholar
  78. Leck MA (1989) Wetland Seed Banks. In: Leck MA, Parker VT, Simpson RL (eds) Ecology of soil seed banks. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 283–308Google Scholar
  79. Legendre P, Legendre L (1998) Numerical ecology. Developments in environmental modelling. Amsterdam Elsevier Science BVGoogle Scholar
  80. Maher MT, Braithwaite LW (1992) Patterns of waterbird use in wetlands of the Paroo: a river system of inland Australia. Rangel J 14:128–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Matthaei CD, Guggelberger C, Huber H (2003) Local disturbance history affects patchiness of benthic river algae. Freshw Biol 48:1514–1526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. McDougall A, Timms B (2001) The influence of turbid waters on waterbird numbers and diversity: A comparison of Lakes Yumberarra and Karatta, Currawinya National Park, South West Queensland. Corella 25:25–31Google Scholar
  83. Miller AM, Golladay SW (1996) Effects of spates and drying on macroinvertebrate assemblages of an intermittent and a perennial prairie stream. J N Am Benthol Soc 15:670–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Nicol JM, Ganf GG, Pelton GA (2003) Seed banks of a southern Australian wetland: the influence of water regime on the final floristic composition. Plant Ecol 168:191–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pellow B, Porter JL (2005) A new species of Goodenia(Goodeniaceae) from Nocoleche Nature Reserve, Far Western Plains, New South Wales. Telopea 11: 35–41Google Scholar
  86. Pollock MM, Naiman RJ, Hanley TA (1998) Plant species richness in riparian wetlands – A test of biodiversity theory. Ecology 79:94–105Google Scholar
  87. Porter J (2002) Effects of salinity turbidity and water regime on arid zone wetland seed banks. Verh Int Ver Theor Angew Limnol 28:1468–1471Google Scholar
  88. Puckridge JT, Sheldon F, Walker KF, Boulton AJ (1998) Flow variability and the ecology of arid zone rivers. Mar Freshw Res 49:55–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Quinn GP, Keough MJ (2002) Experimental design and data analysis for biologists. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  90. Roberts J (1993) Regeneration and growth of coolabah Eucalyptus coolabah ssp. arida a riparian tree in the Cooper Creek region of South Australia. Aust J Ecol 18:345–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Roshier DA, Whetton PH, Allan RJ, Robertson AI (2001) Distribution and persistence of temporary wetland habitats in arid Australia in relation to climate. Aust Ecol 26:371–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Scheffer M, Hosper SH, Meijer ML, Moss B, Jeppesen E (1993) Alternative equilibria in shallow lakes. Trends Ecol Evol 8:275–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Seaman MT, Ashton PJ, Williams WD (1991) Inland salt waters of southern Africa. Hydrobiologia 210:75–91Google Scholar
  94. Smith JA (2002) Seed banks, community dynamics and species persistence in five Tasmanian temporary wetlands. PhD dissertation, University of TasmaniaGoogle Scholar
  95. Sousa WP (1984) The role of disturance in natural communities. Ann Rev Ecol System 15:353–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. SPSS (2000) SYSTAT 10. Chicago IL USA SPSS IncGoogle Scholar
  97. Stafford-Smith DM, Morton SR (1990) A framework for the ecology of arid Australia. J Arid Environ 18:255–278Google Scholar
  98. Timms BV (1993) Saline Lakes of the Paroo inland New South Wales Australia. Hydrobiologia 267:269–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Timms BV (1998) Further studies on the saline lakes of the eastern Paroo inland New South Wales Australia. Hydrobiologia 38:31–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Timms BV (1999) Local runoff Paroo floods and water extraction impacts on wetlands of Currawinya National Park. In: Kingsford RT (eds) A free-flowing river: the ecology of the Paroo River. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, pp 51–66Google Scholar
  101. Timms BV, Boulton AJ (2001) Typology of arid-zone floodplain wetlands of the Paroo River, inland Australia and the influence of water regime turbidity and salinity on their aquatic invertebrate assemblages. Archiv Hydrobiol Adv Limnol 153:1–27Google Scholar
  102. Townsend CR (1989) The Patch Dynamics concept of stream community ecology. J N Am Benthol Soc 8:36–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Townsend CR, Scarsbrook MR, Doledec S (1997) Quantifying disturbance in streams: alternative measures of disturbance in relation to macroinvertebrate species traits and species richness. J N Am Benthol Soc 16:531–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. van den Berg MS, Coops H, Meijer ML, Scheffer M, Simons J (1998) Clear water associated with a dense Chara vegetation in the shallow and turbid Lake Veluwemeer, the Netherlands. In: Jeppesen E, Sondergaard M, Sondergaard M, Christoffersen K (eds) The structuring role of submerged macrophytes in lakes. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 339–352Google Scholar
  105. van Donk E (1998) Switches between clear and turbid water states in a biomanipulated lake (1986–1996): the role of herbivory on macrophytes. In: Jeppesen E, Sondergaard M, Sondergaard M, Christoffersen K (eds) The structuring role of submerged macrophytes in lakes. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 290–297Google Scholar
  106. Walker KF, Boulton AJ, Thoms MC, Sheldon F (1994) Effects of water-level changes induced by weirs on the distribution of littoral plants along the River Murray South Australia. Aust J Mar Freshw Res 45:1421–1438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ward JV, Tockner K, Schiemer F (1999) Biodiversity of floodplain river ecosystems: ecotones and connectivity. Regul Rivers Res Manage 151:125–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Williams WD (1966) Conductivity and the concentration of total dissolved solids in Australian lakes. Aust J Mar Freshw Res 17:169–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Williams WD (1985) Biotic adaptations in temporary lentic waters with special reference to those in semi arid and arid regions. Hydrobiologia 125:85–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Williams WD (1998a) Dryland Wetlands. In: McComb AJ, Davis JA (eds) Wetlands for the future: INTECOL’s fifth International Conference on Wetlands. Gleneagles Publishing, Adelaide, pp 33–47Google Scholar
  111. Williams WD (1998b) Biodiversity in salt lakes. In: McComb AJ, Davis JA (eds) Wetlands for the future: INTECOL’s fifth International Conference on Wetlands. Gleneagles Publishing, Adelaide, pp 33–47Google Scholar
  112. Winer BJ, Brown DR, Michels KM (1991) Statistical principles in experimental design. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  113. Wood RD, Imahori K (1965) A revision of the Characeae Volume I: monograph of the Characeae. Verlag Von J. Cramer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  114. Young WJ (1999) Hydrologic descriptions of semi-arid rivers: an ecological perspective. In: Kingsford RT (ed) A free-flowing river: the ecology of the Paroo River. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, pp 77–96Google Scholar
  115. Young WJ, Schiller CB, Harris JH, Roberts J, Hillman TJ (2001) River flow processes habitats and river life. In: Young WJ (eds) Rivers as ecological systems: the Murray–Darling Basin. Murray Darling River Commission, Canberra, pp 45–99Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • John L. Porter
    • 1
    • 4
  • Richard T. Kingsford
    • 2
  • Margaret A. Brock
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Environment & Conservation NSWHurstvilleAustralia
  2. 2.School of Biological, Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Natural ResourcesArmidaleAustralia
  4. 4.School of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource ManagementUniversity of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia

Personalised recommendations