Advertisement

Plant Ecology

, 184:43 | Cite as

Minor pollinator–prey conflict in the carnivorous plant, Drosera anglica

  • Gillian L. Murza
  • Joanne R. Heaver
  • Arthur R. Davis
Article

Abstract

We studied the physical and temporal isolation of two arthropod guilds interacting with Drosera anglica Huds., a terrestrial carnivorous plant. Flowers are separated from basal trap leaves by a leafless stalk. Since arthropods are potentially employed both as prey and pollinators, we asked whether separation of traps from flowers reduces the frequency with which flower visitors are captured by the leaves. Plants captured prey throughout the season, with peak trapping activity occurring before flowering began. The diverse prey spectrum included at least 109 species in 94 genera in 26 of 37 identified families representing 11 arthropod orders. The most common prey were adult flies of Nematocera, particularly Ceratopogonidae (50%) and Chironomidae (42%). The following taxa were periodically abundant: Acarina, Diptera–Cecidomyiidae, Chloropidae, Sciaridae, Hemiptera nymphs and Thysanoptera–Thripidae. Flies (Diptera) were chief flower visitors (95%), dominated by Syrphidae (66%), Bombyliidae and Muscidae (10% each), Calliphoridae (7%), Tachinidae and Dolichopodidae (3% each). Additionally, visitors were a bee (Hymenoptera–Halictidae) and thrips (Thysanoptera–Thripidae). Four families were common to both guilds: Diptera–Dolichopodidae, Muscidae, Tachinidae; and Thysanoptera–Thripidae. However, direct comparisons of identified taxa within these families showed that overlap between flower visitors and prey occurred for Thrips sp. larvae alone, which comprised only 3% of all flower visitors and 0.5% of prey. Drosera anglica exploits distinct guilds of insects for pollinators and prey.

Keywords

Diptera Nematocera Droseraceae Flower visitors Oblong-leaved Sundew Syrphidae Thripidae 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Mr. Jack Keel, Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management, for permission to collect material from the Macdowall Bog Protected Region, Professor Emeritus Bob Baker (Dept. of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan) for assistance with statistics, and the following individuals for insect verifications/further identifications: Mr. B. Bilyj (Chironomidae) (BIOTAX, Toronto, ON, Canada); Mr. S. Brooks (Dolichopodidae) (McGill University, Macdonald Campus, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, QC, Canada); Dr. B.V. Brown (Phoridae) (Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles, CA, USA); Dr. N. Evenhuis (Bombyliidae) (Bishop Museum, HI, USA); Dr. R.J. Gagné (Cecidomyiidae) (Systematic Entomology Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD, USA); Dr. J. Gelhaus (Ptychopteridae, Tipulidae) (Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, USA); Dr. G. Griffiths (Anthomyiidae, Muscidae) (Sherwood Park, AB, Canada); Dr. W.L. Grogan (Ceratopogonidae) (Salisbury University, Salisbury, MD, USA); Dr. D.V. Hagan (Ceratopogonidae, Psychodidae) (Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA, USA); Dr. T.A. Wheeler (Chloropidae, Sciomyzidae) (McGill University, Macdonald Campus, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, QC, Canada); and the following individuals at the Systematic Entomology Section, Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada: Mr. B.E. Cooper (Calliphoridae), Mr. A. Davies (Cantharidae); Dr. G.A.P. Gibson (Encyrtidae); Dr. K.G.A. Hamilton (Cicadellidae, Delphacidae); Dr. J. Huber (Mymaridae, Trichogrammatidae); Dr. L. Masner (Diapriidae, Platygasteridae, Scelionidae); Mr. E. Maw (Aphididae, Thripidae); Dr. J.E. O’Hara (Tachinidae); Dr. J.R. Vockeroth (Syrphidae); and Mr. H.C.W. Walther (Muscidae). Voucher specimens of plants are located in the W.P. Fraser Herbarium (SASK), and reference specimens of insects housed in the Entomology Museum, Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan. We are also grateful to A. Ellison, S. Wilson and an anonymous reviewer for valued comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. Funding (G.L.M.) is gratefully acknowledged: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada (PGS A); Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan (Graduate Teaching Fellowship, Margaret MacKay Scholarship in Biology, R. Jan F. Smith Memorial Scholarship); Entomological Society of Saskatchewan (Brooks Scholarship). This research was supported by NSERC (A.R.D.).

References

  1. Anderson B., Midgley J.J. (2001). Food or sex; pollinator–prey conflict in carnivorous plants. Ecology Letters 4: 511–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beirne B.P. (1956). Leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) of Canada and Alaska. Entomological Society of Canada, Ottawa ONGoogle Scholar
  3. Borror D.J., DeLong D.M., Triplehorn C.A. (1976). An introduction to the study of insects, 4th edn. Holt Rinehart and Winston, New York NYGoogle Scholar
  4. Davis A.R. (1992). Evaluating honey bees as pollinators of virgin flowers of Echium plantagineum L. (Boraginaceae) by pollen tube fluorescence. Journal of Apicultural Research 31: 83–95Google Scholar
  5. Dixon K.W., Pate J.S., Bailey W.J. (1980). Nitrogen nutrition of the tuberous sundew Drosera erythrorhiza Lindl. with special reference to catch of arthropod fauna by its glandular leaves. Australian Journal of Botany 28: 283–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dobson H.E.M., Groth I., Bergstrom G. (1996). Pollen advertisement: chemical contrasts between whole-flower and pollen odors. American Journal of Botany 83: 877–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ellison A.M., Gotelli N.J. (2001). Evolutionary ecology of carnivorous plants. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16: 623–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ellison A.M., Gotelli N.J., Brewer J.S., Cochran-Stafira D.L., Kneitel J.M., Miller T.E., Worley A.C., Zamora R. (2003). The evolutionary ecology of carnivorous plants. Advances in Ecological Research 33: 1–74Google Scholar
  9. Gibson T. (1991). Differential escape of insects from carnivorous plant traps. American Midland Naturalist 125: 55–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Givnish T.J. (1989). Ecology and evolution of carnivorous plants. In: Abrahamson W.G. (ed.). Plant-animal interactions. McGraw-Hill Inc., New York NY, pp. 242–290Google Scholar
  11. Glossner F. (1992). Ultraviolet patterns in the traps and flowers of some carnivorous plants. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 113: 577–587Google Scholar
  12. Goldblatt P., Bernhardt P., Manning J.C. (1998). Pollination of petaloid geophytes by monkey beetles (Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae: Hopliini) in southern Africa. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: 215–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goulet H., Huber J.T. (eds.). (1993). Hymenoptera of the world: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada,Google Scholar
  14. Johnson D., Kershaw L., MacKinnon A., Pojar J. (1995). Plants of the western boreal forest and aspen parkland. Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton ABGoogle Scholar
  15. Judd W.W. (1969). Studies of the Byron Bog in southwestern Ontario XXXIX. Insects trapped in the leaves of sundew, Drosera intermedia Hayne and Drosera rotundifolia L. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 83: 233–237Google Scholar
  16. Juniper B.E., Robins R.B., Joel D.M. (1989). The carnivorous plants. Academic Press, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  17. Karlsson P.S., Thorén L.M., Hanslin H.M. (1994). Prey capture by three Pinguicula species in a subarctic environment. Oecologia 99: 188–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kearns C.A., Inouye D.W. (1993). Techniques for pollination biologists. University Press of Colorado, Niwot, COGoogle Scholar
  19. Larson B.M.H., Kevan P.G., Inouye D.W. (2001). Flies and flowers: taxonomic diversity of anthophiles and pollinators. The Canadian Entomologist 133: 439–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McAlpine J.F., Peterson B.V., Shewell G.E., Teskey H.J., Vockeroth J.R. and Wood D.M. (eds) 1981. Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Vol. I. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa ONGoogle Scholar
  21. McAlpine J.F., Peterson B.V., Shewell G.E., Teskey H.J., Vockeroth J.R. and Wood D.M. (eds) 1987. Manual of nearctic diptera. Vol. 2. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa ONGoogle Scholar
  22. Michener C.D., McGinley R.J., Danforth B.N. (1994). The bee genera of North and Central America (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  23. Moss E.H. (1983). Flora of Alberta: a manual of flowering plants, conifers, ferns and fern allies found growing without cultivation in the province of Alberta, Canada, 2nd edn. University of Toronto Press, Toronto ONGoogle Scholar
  24. Murza G.L. 2002. Plant-arthropod interactions of the English sundew (Drosera anglica Huds.) at the Macdowall Bog Protected Region, Saskatchewan. MSc Thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  25. Murza G.L., Davis A.R. (2003). Comparative flower structure of three species of sundew (Droseraceae:Drosera anglica, D. linearis and D. rotundifolia) in relation to breeding system. Canadian Journal of Botany 81: 1129–1142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Murza G.L., Davis A.R. (2005). Flowering phenology and reproductive biology of Drosera anglica (Droseraceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 47: 417–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pearsall I.A., Myers J.H. (2000). Population dynamics of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in nectarine orchards in British Columbia. Journal of Economic Entomology 93: 264–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schnell D.E. (1995). A natural hybrid of Drosera anglica Huds. and Drosera linearis Goldie in Michigan. Rhodora 97: 164–170Google Scholar
  29. Sokal R.R., Rohlf F.J. (1981). Biometry: the principles and practice of statistics in biological research, 2nd edn. WH Freeman, San Francisco CAGoogle Scholar
  30. Thum M. (1986). Segregation of habitat and prey in two sympatric carnivorous plant species, Drosera rotundifolia andDrosera intermedia. Oecologia (Berlin) 70: 601–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. van Achterberg C. (1973). A study about the Arthropoda caught byDrosera species. Entomologische Berichten 33: 137–140Google Scholar
  32. Verbeek N.A.M., Boasson R. (1993). Relationship between types of prey captured and growth form in Drosera in southwestern Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology 18: 203–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Vockeroth J.R. (1992). The insects and arachnids of Canada. Part 18. The flower flies of the subfamily Syrphinae of Canada, Alaska, and Greenland: Diptera: Syrphidae. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa ONGoogle Scholar
  34. Watson A.P., Matthiessen J.N., Springett B.P. (1982). Arthropod associates and macronutrient status of the red-ink sundew (Drosera erythrorhiza Lindl). Australian Journal of Ecology 7: 13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wilson P. (1995). Variation in the intensity of pollination in Drosera tracyi: selection is strongest when resources are intermediate. Evolutionary Ecology 9: 382–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wood C.E. (1955). Evidence for the hybrid origin of Drosera anglica. Rhodora 57: 105–130Google Scholar
  37. Yoshimoto C.M. (1984). The insects and arachnids of Canada. Part 12. The families and subfamilies of Canadian chalcidoid wasps: Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa ONGoogle Scholar
  38. Zamora R. (1995). The trapping success of a carnivorous plant,Pinguicula vallisneriifolia: the cumulative effects of availability, attraction, retention and robbery of prey. Oikos 73: 309–322Google Scholar
  39. Zamora R. (1995). The trapping success of a carnivorous plant,Pinguicula vallisneriifolia: the cumulative effects of availability, attraction, retention and robbery of prey. Oikos 73: 309–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zamora R. (1999). Conditional outcomes of interactions: the pollinator–prey conflict of an insectivorous plant. Ecology 80: 786–795Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gillian L. Murza
    • 1
  • Joanne R. Heaver
    • 1
  • Arthur R. Davis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

Personalised recommendations