Plant Ecology

, Volume 182, Issue 1–2, pp 209–233 | Cite as

Biomacromolecules of Algae and Plants and their Fossil Analogues

  • Jan W. de LeeuwEmail author
  • Gerard J. M. Versteegh
  • Pim F. van Bergen


A review of our current understanding of resistant biomacromolecules derived from present and past algae and higher plants is presented. Insight in the nature of recent and fossil macromolecules is strongly hampered by the difficulties in obtaining the material in pure and unaltered form. For the extant material, avoiding artificial condensation and structural alteration as a result of chemical isolation and purification of biomacromolecules requires constant attention. To date, several types of sporopollenin seem to occur. One type is characterised by oxygenated aromatic building blocks, in particular p-coumaric acid and ferrulic acid. The other type is thought to consist predominantly of an aliphatic biopolymer. In this review it is concluded that extant sporopollenin consists of the aromatic type, whereas the aliphatic component of fossil sporopollenin is due to early-diagenetic oxidative polymerization of unsaturated lipids. The cuticles of most higher plants contain the aliphatic biopolyester cutin. Additionally, cuticles of drought-adapted, mostly CAM plants, seem to contain the non-hydrolysable aliphatic biopolymer cutan. Only a very few algae are able to biosynthesize resistant, (fossilisable) cell walls: some Chlorophyta, Eustigmatophyta and Prasinophyta produce the aliphatic biopolymer algaenan. Some Dinophyta are also capable of producing algaenan cell walls. Additionally, some taxa produce highly resistant cyst-walls with a high proportion of aromatic moieties. For the morphologically well-preserved fossil material, contamination by organic particles other than the target taxon is hard to eliminate and can contribute to either the aliphatic or aromatic signal. Furthermore, post-mortem migration of aliphatic moieties into, and their condensation onto the macromolecule might occur, e.g. by oxidative polymerization. These phenomena hamper the evaluation of the aliphatic signature of fossil plant material and may for example explain the preservation of initially cutin-based cuticles or non-algaenan containing algae. The extent to which migration and in situ formation of aromatic moieties plays a role in modifying resistant algal macromolecules, notably under elevated temperature and/or pressure conditions, still remains an open question.


Algaenan Biomacromolecule Diagenesis Fossil Recent Sporopollenin 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan W. de Leeuw
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Gerard J. M. Versteegh
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • Pim F. van Bergen
    • 5
  1. 1.Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea ResearchTexelThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Organic Geochemistry, Faculty of GeosciencesUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Palaeoecology, Faculty of BiologyUtrechtThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Hanse WissenschaftskollegDelmenhorstGermany
  5. 5.Shell Global Solutions InternationalAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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