User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 257–304 | Cite as

Adaptive, intelligent presentation of information for the museum visitor in PEACH

  • Oliviero StockEmail author
  • Massimo Zancanaro
  • Paolo Busetta
  • Charles Callaway
  • Antonio Krüger
  • Michael Kruppa
  • Tsvi Kuflik
  • Elena Not
  • Cesare Rocchi
Original Paper


The study of intelligent user interfaces and user modeling and adaptation is well suited for augmenting educational visits to museums. We have defined a novel integrated framework for museum visits and claim that such a framework is essential in such a vast domain that inherently implies complex interactivity. We found that it requires a significant investment in software and hardware infrastructure, design and implementation of intelligent interfaces, and a systematic and iterative evaluation of the design and functionality of user interfaces, involving actual visitors at every stage. We defined and built a suite of interactive and user-adaptive technologies for museum visitors, which was then evaluated at the Buonconsiglio Castle in Trento, Italy: (1) animated agents that help motivate visitors and focus their attention when necessary, (2) automatically generated, adaptive video documentaries on mobile devices, and (3) automatically generated post-visit summaries that reflect the individual interests of visitors as determined by their behavior and choices during their visit. These components are supported by underlying user modeling and inference mechanisms that allow for adaptivity and personalization. Novel software infrastructure allows for agent connectivity and fusion of multiple positioning data streams in the museum space. We conducted several experiments, focusing on various aspects of PEACH. In one, conducted with 110 visitors, we found evidence that even older users are comfortable interacting with a major component of the system.


Adaptive mobile guides Multimodal user interfaces Personalized information presentation Personal visit report 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abowd G., Atkeson C., Hong J., Long S., Kooper R. and Pinkerton M. (1997). Cyberguide: a mobile context-aware tour guide. Wirel. Netw. 3(5): 421–433 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albertini, A., Brunelli, R., Stock, O., Zancanaro, M.: Communicating user’s focus of attention by image processing as input for a mobile museum guide. The 10th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, pp. 299–301. San Diego, CA (2005)Google Scholar
  3. Alfaro I., Nardon M., Pianesi F., Stock O. and Zancanaro M. (2004). Using cinematic techniques on mobile devices for cultural tourism. Inform. Technol. Tourism 7(2): 61–71 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andreatta, C., Lecca, M., Messelodi, S.: Memory-based object recognition in digital images. The 10th International Fall Workshop – Vision, Modeling, and Visualization, pp. 33–40. Erlangen, Germany (2005)Google Scholar
  5. Aoki, P.M., Grinter, R.E., Hurst, A., Szymanski, M.H., Thornton, J.D., Woodruff, A.: Sotto Voce: exploring the interplay of conversation and mobile audio spaces. In: Wixon, D. (ed.) The SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems: Changing our world, changing ourselves, pp. 431–438. ACM Press, New York (2002)Google Scholar
  6. Arijon D. (1976). Grammar of the Film Language. Communication Arts Books. Hasting House, New York Google Scholar
  7. Bares, W., Grégoire, J., Lester, J.: Realtime constraint-based cinematography for complex interactive 3d worlds. The Tenth National Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence, pp. 1101–1106. Madison, Wisconsin, USA (1998)Google Scholar
  8. Baus J., Cheverst K. and Kray C. (2005). A survey of map-based mobile guides. In: Meng., L., Zipf, A., and Reichenbacher, T. (eds) Map-based Mobile Services – Theories, Methods and Implementations., pp 197–213. Springer, Heidelberg Google Scholar
  9. Bellotti F., Berta R., Margarone M. and Gloria A. (2002). User testing a hypermedia tour guide. IEEE Pervasive Comput. 1(2): 33–41 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Benelli, G., Bianchi, A., Marti, P., Not, E., Sennati, D.: HIPS: hypen-interaction within physical space. International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems, pp. 1075–1078. Florence, Italy (1999)Google Scholar
  11. Berkovich, M., Date, J., Keeler, R., Louw, M., O’Toole, M.: Discovery point: enhancing the museum experience with technology. Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 994–995. Florida, USA (2003)Google Scholar
  12. Berkovsky, S., Gorfinkel, A., Kuflik, T., Manevitz, L.: Case-based to content-based user model mediation. Workshop on Ubiquitous User Modeling, held in conjunction with ECAI-2006. Riva delGarda, Italy (2006)Google Scholar
  13. Bohnenberger, T., Jacobs, O., Jameson, A., Aslan, I.: Decision-theoretic planning meets user requirements: enhancements and studies of an intelligent shopping guide. Pervasive computing: Third International Conference, pp. 279–196. Munich, Germany (2005)Google Scholar
  14. Busetta, P., Donà, A., Nori, M.: Channeled multicast for group communications. The First International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, pp. 1280–1287. Bologna, Italy (2002)Google Scholar
  15. Busetta, P., Merzi, M., Rossi, S., Legras, F.: Intra-role coordination using group communication: a preliminary report. International Workshop on Agent Communication Languages and Conversation Policies, pp. 231–253. Melbourne, Australia (2003)Google Scholar
  16. Butz, A.: Anymation with CATHI. The Fourteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Ninth Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence Conference, pp. 957–962. Providence, Rhode Island, USA (1997)Google Scholar
  17. Callaway C. and Lester J. (2002). Narrative Prose Generation. Artif. Intell. 139(2): 213–252 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Callaway C., Not E., Novello A., Rocchi C., Stock O. and Zancanaro M. (2005a). Automatic Cinematography and Multilingual NLG for Generating Video Documentaries. Artif. Intell. 165(1): 57–89 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Callaway, C., Kuflik, T., Not, E., Novello, A., Stock, O., Zancanaro, M.: Personal reporting of a museum visit as an entrypoint to future cultural experience. The 10th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, pp. 275–277. San Diego, CA (2005b)Google Scholar
  20. Cheverst, K., Davies, N., Mitchell, K., Friday, A., Efstratiou, C.: Developing a context-aware electronic tourist guide: some issues and experiences. The CHI 2000 Conference on Human factors in computing systems, pp. 17–24. The Hague, Netherlands (2000)Google Scholar
  21. Cheverst K., Mitchell K. and Davies N. (1999). Design of an object model for a context sensitive tourist guide. Comput. Graph. 23(6): 883–891 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Csikszentmihalyi M. (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. Harper and Row, New York Google Scholar
  23. Davis F.D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quart. 13: 319–340 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dey A., Salber D. and Abowd G. (2001). A conceptual framework and a toolkit for supporting the rapid prototyping of context-aware applications. Hum-Comput. Interact. J. 16(2–4): 97–166 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Efstratiou, C., Friday, A., Davies, N., Cheverst, K.: A platform supporting coordinated adaptation in mobile systems. The 4th IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, pp. 128–137. Callicoon, New York (2003)Google Scholar
  26. Friedman, D.A., Feldman, Y.A.: Knowledge-based cinematography and its applications. The 16th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 256–262. Valencia, Spain (2004)Google Scholar
  27. Gena C. (2005). Methods and techniques for the evaluation of user-adaptive systems. Knowledge Eng. Rev. 20(1): 1–37 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gena C. and Torre I. (2004). The importance of adaptivity to provide on-board services. A preliminary evaluation of an adaptive tourist information service on board vehicles. Appl. Artif. Intell. 18(6): 549–580 Google Scholar
  29. Goren-Bar D., Graziola I., Pianesi F. and Zancanaro M. (2006). The influence of personality factors on visitor attitudes towards adaptivity dimensions for mobile museum guides. User Model. User-Adapt. Interact. 16(1): 31–62 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Goren-Bar D., Graziola I., Rocchi C., Pianesi F., Stock O. and Zancanaro M. (2005). Designing and redesigning an affective interface for an adaptive museum guide. In: Tao, J., Tan, T., and Picard, R. (eds) Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction ACII-2005 First International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction., pp. Beijing, China Google Scholar
  31. Goren-Bar, D., Prete, M.: Report on a museum tour report. In: Maybury M., Stock O., Wahlster W. (eds.) INTETAIN 2005: First Conference on Intelligent Technologies for Interactive Entertainment, pp. 230–234. Springer, LNAI 3814Google Scholar
  32. Grinter, E., Aoki, P. M., Hurst, A., Szymanski, M.H., Thornton, J.D., Woodruff, A.: Revisiting the visit: Understanding how technology can shape the museum visit. ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pp. 146–155. New Orleans, LA (2002)Google Scholar
  33. Halliday, M.A.K., Hasan, R.: Language, Context and Text: Aspects of Language in a Social-Semiotic Perspective. Deakin University Press. (1985)Google Scholar
  34. Halper, N., Oliver, P.: CamPlan: A camera planning agent. The AAAI Spring Symposium Workshop on Smart Graphics, pp. 92–100. Stanford, USA (2000)Google Scholar
  35. Hatala, M., Kalantari, L., Wakkary, R., Newby, K.: Ontology and rule based retrieval of sound objects in augmented audio reality system for museum visitors. The 2004 ACM Symposium on Applied computing, pp. 1045–1050. Nicosia, Cyprus (2004)Google Scholar
  36. Heckmann, D., Schwartz, T., Brandherm, B., Schmitz, M.: von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, M.: GUMO – the general user model ontology. The 10th International Conference on User Modelling, pp. 428–432. Edinburgh, UK (2005)Google Scholar
  37. Höök K. (2000). Steps to take before IUIs become real. J. Interact. Comput. 12(4): 409–426 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jameson A. and Schwarzkopf E. (2002). Pros and cons of controllability: An empirical study. In: Brusilovsky, P. and Conejo, E. (eds) Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-based Systems: AH2002., pp 193–202. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg Google Scholar
  39. Karp, P., Feiner, S.: Automated presentation planning of animation using task decomposition with heuristic reasoning. Graphics Interface’93, pp. 118–127. Toronto, Ontario Canada (1993)Google Scholar
  40. Katz, S., Kahanov, Y., Kashtan, N., Kuflik T., Graziola, I., Rocchi, C., Stock, O., Zancanaro, M.: Preparing personalized multimedia presentations for a mobile museum visitors guide – a methodological approach. In: Trant, J., Bearman, D. (eds.) Museums and the Web 2006, Archives & Museum Informatics, Toronto: published March 1, 2006 at (2006)Google Scholar
  41. Kay J., Kummerfeld B. and Lauder P. (2005a). Consistent modelling of users, devices and sensors in a ubiquitous computing environment. User Model. User-Adapt. Interact. 15(3–4): 197–234 Google Scholar
  42. Kay, J., Lum, A., Niu, W.: A scrutable museum tour guide system. The 2nd Workshop on Multi-User and Ubiquitous User Interfaces, Sonderforschungsbereich 378, Saarland, pp. 19–20 (2005b)Google Scholar
  43. Krüger, A., Butz, A., Müller, C., Stahl, C., Wasinger, R., Steinberg, K., Dirschl, A.: The connected user interface: realizing a personal situated navigation service. The 9th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, pp. 161–168. Madeira, Portugal (2004)Google Scholar
  44. Krüger, A., Kruppa, M., Müller, C., Wasinger, R.: Readapting multimodal presentations to heterogenous user groups. AAAI-Workshop on Intelligent and Situation-Aware Media and Presentations, T. R. WS-02–08, AAAI Press, pp. 46–54. (2002)Google Scholar
  45. Kruppa, M., Aslan, I.: Parallel presentations for heterogeneous user groups – an initial user study. In: Maybury, M., Stock O., Wahlster, W. (eds.) INTETAIN 2005: First Conference on Intelligent Technologies for Interactive Entertainment, pp. 54–63. Springer, LNAI 3814 (2005)Google Scholar
  46. Kruppa, M., Krüger, A.: Concepts for a combined use of personal digitalassistants and large remote displays. Simulation und Visualisierung, pp. 349–361. Magdeburg, Germany (2003)Google Scholar
  47. Long, S., Aust, D., Abowd, G., Atkeson, C.: Cyberguide: Prototyping context-aware mobile applications. Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 293–294. Vancouver, Canada (1996)Google Scholar
  48. Malaka R. and Zipf A. (2000). DEEP MAP – Challenging IT research in the framework of a tourist information System. In: Fesenmaier, D., Klein, S. and Buhalis, D. (eds) Informaton and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2000: ENTER 2000., pp 15–27. Springer, Wien Google Scholar
  49. Mann, W., Thompson, S.: Rhetorical structure theory: a theory of text organization. T. R. ISI/RS87–190, USC/ISI, Marina del Rey, CA (1987)Google Scholar
  50. McCrae R.R. and John O.P. (1992). An introduction to the five-factors model and its applications. J. Personality 60: 175–215 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McKeown K.R. (1985). Text Generation: Using Discourse Strategies and Focus Constraints to Generate Natural Language Text. Cambridge University Press, London, UK Google Scholar
  52. Nardon, M., Pianesi, F., Zancanaro, M.: Interactive documentaries: first usability studies. The 2nd Workshop on Personalization in Future TV, Malaga, Spain, available online at: (2002)Google Scholar
  53. Niederee, C., Stewart, A., Mehta, B., Hemmje, M.: A multi-dimensional, unified user model for cross-system personalization. Workshop On Environments For Personalized Information Access, pp. 34–54. Gallipoli, Italy (2004)Google Scholar
  54. Norman D.A. (1998). The Invisible Computer. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA Google Scholar
  55. Not E., Petrelli D., Sarini M., Stock O., Strapparava C. and Zancanaro M. (1998). Hypernavigation in the physical space: adapting presentations to the user and to the situational context. New Rev. Hypermedia Multimedia 4: 33–45 Google Scholar
  56. Novak T.P., Hoffman D.L. and Yung Y.F. (2000). Measuring the customer experience in on-line environments: a structural modeling approach. Marketing Science 19: 22–44 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Oberlander J., O’Donnell M., Knott A. and Mellish C. (1998). Conversation in the museum: experiments in dynamic hypermedia with the intelligent labelling explorer. New Rev. Hypermedia Multimedia. 4: 11–32 Google Scholar
  58. Petrelli D. and Not E. (2005). User-centered design of flexible hypermedia for a mobile guide: reflections on the hyperaudio experience. User Model. User-Adapt. Interact. 15(3–4): 303–338 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Popovich P.M., Hyde K.R., Zakrajsek T. and Blumer C. (1987). The development of the attitudes toward computer usage scale. Educ. Psychol. Meas. 47: 261–269 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Potonniee, O.: Ubiquitous personalization: a smart card based approach. The 4th Gemplus Developer Conference, Singapore, available online at: (2002)Google Scholar
  61. Raptis, D., Tselios, N., Avouris, N.: Context-based design of mobile applications for museums: a survey of existing practices. The 7th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices & Services, pp. 153–160. Salzburg, Austria (2005)Google Scholar
  62. Reiter, E.: Has a consensus NL generation architecture appeared, and is it psycholinguistically plausible? The Seventh International Workshop on Natural Language Generation, pp. 163–170. Kennebunkport, ME (1994)Google Scholar
  63. Rocchi, C., Zancanaro, M.: Adaptive Video Documentaries. The HyperText Conference, pp. 36–37. Nottingham, UK (2003).Google Scholar
  64. Rocchi, C., Zancanaro, M.: Template-based adaptive video documentaries. Artifical Intelligence in Mobile Systems, pp. 79–83. Nottingham, UK (2004)Google Scholar
  65. Rocchi, C., Stock, O., Zancanaro, M., Kruppa, M., Krüger, A.: The museum visit: generating seamless personalized presentations on multiple devices. The 2004 Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, pp. 316–318. Madeira, Portugal (2004)Google Scholar
  66. Rotter J.B. (1966). Generalized Expectancies for Internal Versus External Control of Reinforcement. Psychol. Monogr. 80: 1–28 Google Scholar
  67. Sarini, M., Strapparava, C.: Building a user model for a museum exploration and information-providing adaptive system. In: Brusilovsky, P., De Bra, P. (eds.) The 2nd Workshop on Adaptive Hypertext and Hypermedia, Report No. 98/12, CS Reports, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, pp. 63–68 (1998)Google Scholar
  68. Shneiderman, B.: (1998) Eight Golden Rules for Interface Design. Designing the User Interface, 3rd edn. Addison Wesley, Reading MAGoogle Scholar
  69. Stock, O.: The ALFRESCO Project Team.: ALFRESCO: enjoying the combination of NLP and hypermedia for information exploration. In: Maybury, M.T. (ed.) Intelligent Multimedia Interfaces, pp. 197–224. AAAI Press, Menlo Park, CA (1993)Google Scholar
  70. Stokmans M.J.W. (1999). Reading attitude and its effect on leisure time reading. Poetics 26: 245–261 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Totterdell P. and Boyle E. (1990). The evaluation of adaptive systems. In: Browne, D., Totterdell, P. and Norman, M. (eds) Adaptive User Interfaces., pp 161–194. Academic Press, London Google Scholar
  72. van Mulken, S., André, E., Mueller, J.: The persona effect: how substantial is it. Human Computer Interaction Conference, pp. 53–58. Berlin, Germany (1998)Google Scholar
  73. Want, R., Schilit, B., Adams, N., Gold, R., Petersen, K., Ellis, J., Goldberg, D., Weiser, M.: The PARCTab ubiquitous computing experiment. T.R.CSL-95–1. Xerox PARC, Palo Alto, CA (1995)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oliviero Stock
    • 1
    Email author
  • Massimo Zancanaro
    • 1
  • Paolo Busetta
    • 1
  • Charles Callaway
    • 2
  • Antonio Krüger
    • 3
    • 4
  • Michael Kruppa
    • 3
  • Tsvi Kuflik
    • 5
  • Elena Not
    • 1
  • Cesare Rocchi
    • 1
  1. 1.IRSTPovo, TrentoItaly
  2. 2.Informatics DepartmentUniversity of EdinburghEdinburghUK
  3. 3.DFKI GmbHSaarbrückenGermany
  4. 4.University of MünsterMünsterGermany
  5. 5.Management Information Systems DepartmentUniversity of HaifaHaifaIsrael

Personalised recommendations