User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 31–62 | Cite as

The influence of personality factors on visitor attitudes towards adaptivity dimensions for mobile museum guides

  • Dina Goren-BarEmail author
  • Ilenia Graziola
  • Fabio Pianesi
  • Massimo Zancanaro
Original Paper


In this work, we present a study on adaptation in a mobile museum guide, investigating the relationships between personality traits, and the attitudes towards some basic dimensions of adaptivity. Each participant was exposed to two simulated systems—one adaptive, the other not—on each of the dimensions investigated. The study showed that the personality traits relating to the notion of control (conscientiousness, neuroticism/emotional stability, Locus of Control) have a selective effect on the acceptance of the adaptivity dimensions.


Adaptivity Mobile Information Presentation HCI Human Factors User Evaluation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abwod G.D., Mynatt E.D. (2000) Charting past, present and future research in ubiquitous computing. ACM Trans. Comp. Hum. Interact. 7(1): 41–57Google Scholar
  2. Agarwal R., Karahanna E. (2000) Time flies when you’re having fun: cognitive absorption and beliefs about information technology usage. MIS Q. 24(4): 665–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agarwal R., Prasad J. (1998) A conceptual and operational definition of personal innovativeness in the domain of information technology. Inf. Syst. Res. 9(2): 204–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agresti A. (2002) Categorical Data Analysis. John Wiley and Sons, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. Ajzen I. (1998). Attitude theory and the attitude–behavior relation. In: Krebs, Schmidt (eds). New Directions in Attitude Measurment. deGruyter, Berlin, pp. 41–57Google Scholar
  6. Alfaro I., Nardon M., Pianesi P., Stock O., Zancanaro M. (2004) Using cinematic techniques on mobile devices for cultural tourism. Inf. Technol. Tourism 7(2): 223–230Google Scholar
  7. Alpert S.R., Karat J., Karat C.-M., Brodie C., Vergo J.G. (2003) User attitudes regarding a user-adaptive eCommerce web site. User Model. User-Adap. Interact. 13(4): 373–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bandura A. (1977) Social Learning Theory. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.JGoogle Scholar
  9. Bandura A. (1977) Self Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. W.H. Freeman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Baus, J., Krüger, A., Wahlster, W. A resource-adaptive mobile navigation system. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI’02), pp. 15–22. San Francisco, CA (2002)Google Scholar
  11. Becker, P. The four-plus-X factor model as a framework for the description of normal and disordered personality. A pilot study. Trier Psuchol Berichte Band29, Heft 1. University of Trier (2002)Google Scholar
  12. Bohnenberger, T., Jameson, A., Krueger, A., Butz, A. Location-aware shopping assistance: evaluation of a decision-theoretic approach, pp. 159–169. In: Proceedings of Mobile-HCI-02, Pisa, Italy (2002)Google Scholar
  13. Brusilovsky, P. Adaptive hypermedia. User Model. User Adapt. Inter. Ten Year Anniversary Issue (Alfred Kobsa ed.) 11(1/2), 87–110 (2001)Google Scholar
  14. Brusilovsky P., Maybury M.T. (2002) From adaptive hypermedia to the adaptive web. Commun. ACM. 45(5): 30–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brusilovsky P., Karagiannidis C., Sampson D. (2004) Layered evaluation of adaptive learning systems. Int. J. Continuing Eng. Educ. Lifelong Learn. 14(4/5): 402–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Butz A. (2004) Between location awareness and aware locations: where to put the intelligence. Appl. Artif. Intell. (Special Issue on AI in Mobile Systems) 18(6): 501–512Google Scholar
  17. Cheverst K., Davies N., Mitchell K. (2002) The role of adaptive hypermedia within a context-aware tourist GUIDE. Commun. ACM (Special Issue on adaptive Web-based Systems and Adaptive Hypermedia) 45(5): 47–51Google Scholar
  18. Chin D.N. (2001) Empirical evaluation of user model and user-adaptive system. User Model User-Adap. Interact. 11(1–2): 181–194CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. Cigliano, E., Monaci, S. Multimuseum: a multichannel communication project for the National Museum of Cinema of Turin. In Proceedings of Museum and the Web 2003. Charlotte, NC, USA (last (2003)Google Scholar
  20. Costa, P.T., McCrae, R.R. NEO PI-R: professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources. Odessa, FL (1992)Google Scholar
  21. Craig A.R., Franklin J.A., Andrews G. (1984) A scale to measure locus of control of behaviour. Br. J. Med. Psychol. 41, 397–404Google Scholar
  22. Davis F.D. (1989) Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Q. 13(3): 319–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davis F.D. (1993) User acceptance of information technology: system characteristics, user perceptions and behavioural impacts. Int. J. Man-Mach. Stud. 38(3): 475–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. De Raad B. (2000) The Big Five Personalità Factors: The Psycholexical Approach to Personalità. Hogrefe & Huber Publishers, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  25. Digman J.M. (1997) Higher-order factors of the Big Five. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 73, 1246–1256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Farma, T., Cortinovis, I. Un questionario sul “locus of control”: suo utilizzo nel contesto Italiano (A questionnaire on the ‘locus of control”: its use in the Italian context). Ricerca in Psicoterapia, vol. 2, Edizioni La Vita Felice/Tempo Libro srl, Milano (2000)Google Scholar
  27. Falaleeva, N.G., Johnson R.D. Influence of individual psychological traits on attribution toward computing technology. In: Proceedings of Eighth Americas Conference on Information Systems. ACIS 2002. Dalias, Texas, USA. pp. 1028–1033 (2002)Google Scholar
  28. Gena C. (2005) Methods and techniques for the evaluation of user-adaptive systems. The Knowl. Eng. Rev. 20(1): 1–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gena C., Torre I. (2004) The importance of adaptivity to provide onboard services: a preliminary evaluation of an adaptive tourist information service onboard vehicles. Appl. Artif. Intell. (Special Issue on AI in Mobile Systems) 18(6): 549–580Google Scholar
  30. Giannoutsos, V. Stress, attitudes and personality in computing. In: Proceedings of ETHICOMP 2004, Syros, Gr. (2004)Google Scholar
  31. Goren-Bar, D., Graziola, I., Rocchi, C., Pianesi, F., Stock, O., Zancanaro, M. Designing and redesigning an affective interface for an adaptive museum guide. In: Proceedings of Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: First International Conference, October 22–24, 2005, pp. 939–946 (2005a) Beijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  32. Goren-Bar, D., Graziola, I., Kuflik, T., Pianesi, F., Rocchi, C., Stock, O., Zancanaro, M. I like it: an affective interface for a multimodal museum guide. In: Proceedings of Workshop on Affective Interaction, January 9, pp. 21–26, San Diego, U.S.A. (2005b)Google Scholar
  33. Grinter, R.E., Aoki, P.M., Hurst, A. Szymanski, M.H., Thornton, J.D., Woodruff, A. Revisiting the visit: understanding how technology can shape the museum visit. In: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW 2002, pp. 146–155. New Orleans, LA. (2002)Google Scholar
  34. Heider F. (1957) The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Hitzeman J., Mellish C., Oberiander J. (1997) Dynamic generation of museum web pages: The intelligent labelling explorer. Arch. Museum Inform. 11, 107–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Horvitz, M. Principles of mixed-initiative user interfaces. In: Proceedings of CHI 99, ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Pittsburgh, pp. 159–166 PA, ACM Press. (1999)Google Scholar
  37. Howard, P. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. Bard Press, Austin, TX 1999 (2nd Edition), 2006 (3rd edition) (1994)Google Scholar
  38. Howard P.J. (2000) The Owner’s Manual for the Brain: Everyday Applications from Mind-Brain Research. Bard Press, Austin, TXGoogle Scholar
  39. Hristova, N., O’Hare, G.M.P. Ad-me: wireless advertising adapted to the user location, device and emotions. In: Proceedings of the 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences – 2004, vol. 9, p. 90285c (2004)Google Scholar
  40. Jameson A. (2003). Adaptive interfaces and agents. In: Jacko J., Sears A. (eds). Human-Computer Interaction Handbook. Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 305–330Google Scholar
  41. Jameson, A., Schwarzkopf, E. Pros and cons of controllability: an empirical study. In: Brusilovsky, P., Conejo, E. (eds.) Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-based Systems: Proceedings of AH2002, pp. 193–202 Malaga, Spain. (2002)Google Scholar
  42. John O.P., Srivastava S. (1999). The big five trait taxonomy: history, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In: Pervin L.A., John O.P. (eds). Handbook of Personality. Theory and Research. 2nd edn., Guilford, New York, pp. 102–138Google Scholar
  43. Johnson, R.D., Marakas, G.M., Palmer, J.W., Tool or social actor? Factors contributing to differential social attributions toward computing technology, University of Central Florida Working Paper, Orlando, FL (2001)Google Scholar
  44. Johnson R.D., Marakas G.M., Palmer J.W. (2006) Differential social attributions toward computing technology: An empirical investigation. Int. J. Human-Comput. Stud. 64(5): 446–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kay J. (2001) Learner control. User Model. User-Adap. Interact. 11(1–2): 111–127CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  46. Kruger, A., Butz, A. Muller, Ch., Stahl, Ch., Wasinger, R., Steinberg, K.E., Dirschl, A.: The connected user interface: realizing a personal situated navigation service. In: Proceedings of Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI2004), pp. 161–168 Madeira, Portugal (2004)Google Scholar
  47. Lester, C.Y., Brown, M. Proposing CAPS as a link in the bridge across the divide. In: Proceedings of Grace Hopper Celebration – Women in Computing 2004, Chicago (2004)Google Scholar
  48. Marakas G.M., Johnson R.D., Palmer J.W. (2000) A theoretical model of differential social attributions toward computing technology: When the metaphor becomes the model. Int. J. Human-Comput. Stud. 52(4): 719–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mayes J.T., Fowler C.J.H. (1999) Learning technology and usability: a framework for understanding courseware. Interact. Comput. 11, 485–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McCrae R.R., John O.P. An introduction to the five-factors model and its applications. J. Pers. 60, 175–215Google Scholar
  51. Negroponte, N. Being Digital. Vintage Books (1995)Google Scholar
  52. Nielsen, J. Paper versus computer implementations as mockup scenarios for heuristic evaluation. In: Proceedings of 3rd IFIP Conf. Human-Computer Interaction - INTERACT 90, 27–31 Aug, 1990, pp. 315–320 Cambridge, U.K. (1990)Google Scholar
  53. Norman, D.A. The Invisible Computer. MIT Press, pp. 23–50, 185–202 (1998)Google Scholar
  54. Oberlander, J., Mellish, C., O’Donnell, M., Knott, A. Exploring a gallery with intelligent labels. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Hypermedia and Interactivity in Museums, pp. 153–161. Paris, September, (1997)Google Scholar
  55. Oppermann, R., Specht, M. A context-sensitive nomadic information system as an exhibition guide. In: Proceedings of the Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing Second International Symposium, HUC 2000, pp. 127–142 Bristol, UK. (2000)Google Scholar
  56. Petrelli, D., Not, E., Sarini, M., Stock, O., Strapparava, C., Zancanaro, M. HyperAudio: location-awareness  +  adaptivity. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Computer-Human Interaction CHI 99. pp. 21–22 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1999)Google Scholar
  57. Petrelli D., Not E. (2005) User-centred design of flexible hypermedia for a mobile guide: reflections on the hyperaudio experience. User Model. User-Adap. Interac. J. Personalization Res. 15(3–4): 303–338.–005–8816–1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Perugini M., Di Blas L. (2002). Analyzing personality-related adjectives from an eticemic perspective: the big five marker scales (BFMS) and the Italian AB5C taxonomy. In: De Raad B., Perugini M. (eds). Big Five Assessment. Hogrefe und Huber Publishers, Göttingen, pp. 281–304Google Scholar
  59. Preece J., Rogers Y., Sharp H. (2002) Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction. WileyGoogle Scholar
  60. Proctor, N., Tellis, C. The state of the art in museum handhelds in 2003. In: Proceedings of Museums and the Web. Charlotte, NC, U.S.A. (last (2003)Google Scholar
  61. Rocchi, C., Stock, O., Zancanaro, M., Kruppa, M., Krüger, A. The museum visit: generating seamless personalized presentations on multiple devices. In: Proceedings of Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI2004), pp. 316–318 Madeira, Portugal (2004)Google Scholar
  62. Rocchi, C., Zancanaro, M. Rhetorical patterns for adaptive video documentaries. In: Proceedings of Adaptive Hypermedia Conference, pp. 324–327 Eindhoven, Holland (2004)Google Scholar
  63. Rotter, J.B. Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychol. Monogr. 80 (1, Whole N. 609) (1966)Google Scholar
  64. Sharifi, G., Vassileva, J., Deters, R. Seamless communication and access to information for mobile users in a wireless environment. In: Proceedings ICEIS2004 International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, pp. 122–130 Porto (2004)Google Scholar
  65. Shneiderman, B. Eight golden rules for interface design. In: Designing the User Interface, 3rd edn. Addison Wesley, U.S.A. (1998)Google Scholar
  66. Totterdell P., Boyle E. (1990). The evaluation of adaptive systems. In: Browne D., Totterdell P., Norman M. (eds). Adaptive User Interfaces. Academic Press, London, pp. 161–194Google Scholar
  67. Virzi, R.A., Sokolov, J.L., Karis, D. Usability problem identification using both low- and high-fidelity prototypes. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems – CHI’96. Vancouver, pp. 236–243 British Columbia, Canada (1996)Google Scholar
  68. Wexelblat, A., Maes, P. Issues for Software Agent UI. Unpublished manuscript, available from (1997).Google Scholar
  69. Wicker A.W. (1969) Attitudes versus actions: the relationship of verbal and overt behavioral responses to attitude objects. J. Soc. Iss. 25, 41–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wiggins J.S. (1996) The Five-Factor Model of Personality. Guilford Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dina Goren-Bar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ilenia Graziola
    • 1
  • Fabio Pianesi
    • 1
  • Massimo Zancanaro
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Scientific and Technological Research – ITC-irstPovoItaly

Personalised recommendations