User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction

, Volume 15, Issue 3–4, pp 197–234 | Cite as

Consistent Modelling of Users, Devices and Sensors in a Ubiquitous Computing Environment

Article

Abstract

This paper describes the use of an accretion-resolution user modelling representation to model people, places and objects. We explain the motivation for the key properties of the representation, especially those of particular importance for ubiquitous computing: firstly, for flexibility in interpreting the typically noisy and potentially conflicting evidence about users’ locations; secondly, to support users in scrutinising their user model, the processes that determine its contents and the way that it is used in the ubiquitous computing environment.

A novel and important aspect of this work is our extension of the representation beyond modelling just users, using it also to represent the other elements such as devices, sensors, rooms and buildings. We illustrate our approach in terms of models we have been building for a system which enables users to gain personalised information about the sensors and services in a ubiquitous computing environment. We report experiments on the scalability and the management of inconsistency in modelling of location, based on accretion-resolution

Keywords

modelling location modelling pervasive computing environments scrutability user control user model representation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ackerman M., Cranor, L. and Reagle, J.: 1999, Privacy critics: UI components to safeguard user’ privacy’. In: M.H. Williams (ed.): The CHI is the Limit: Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI99 Conference Proceedings. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  2. Addlesee, M., Curwen, R., Hodges, S., Newman, J., Steggles, P., Ward, A., Hopper, A. 2001Implementing a sentient computing systemIEEE Computer345056Google Scholar
  3. Apted, T., Kay, J., Lum, A, Uther, J. 2003

    Visualisation of ontological inferences for user control of personal web agents

    Banissi, EBorner, KChen, CClapworthy, GMaple, CLobben, AMoore, CRoberts, JUrsyn, A.Zhang, J. eds. Proceedings of IV03-VSW Information Visualisation – Semantic Web Visualisation.UKLondon305311
    Google Scholar
  4. Bauer, M, Becker, C, Rothermel, K. 2002Location models from the perspective of context-aware applications and mobile ad hoc networksPersonal and Ubiquitous Computing6322328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bellotti, V., Back, M., Edwards, W.K., Grinter, R.E., Henderson, A. and Lopes, C.V.: 2002, Making sense of sensing systems: five questions for designers and researchers. In: CHI ’02: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, pp. 415–422.Google Scholar
  6. Brajnik, G., Tasso, C. 1994A shell for developing non-monotonic user modeling systems’International Journal of Human-Computer Studies403662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brummit, B., Krumm, J., Kern, A. and Shafer, S.A.: 2000, Easyliving: technologies for intelligent environments’. In: Proceedings of: 2nd International Symposium on Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing. Bristol, United Kingdom, pp. 12–29.Google Scholar
  8. Carmichael, DJ., Kay, J., Kummerfeld, RJ. 2004

    Personal ontologies for feature selection in intelligent environment visualisations

    Baus, J.Kray, C.Porzel, R. eds. Proceedings of AIMS’04 – Artificial Intelligence in Mobile System.NottinghamEngland444451
    Google Scholar
  9. Cheverst, K., Byun, H.E., Fitton, D., Sas, C., Kray, C. and Villar, N.: 2005, Exploring issues of user model transparency and proactive behaviour in an office environment control system. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction: The Journal of Personalization Research (this issue).Google Scholar
  10. Chin, D., Wahlster, W. 1989

    K NOME: modeling what the user knows in UC

    Kobsa, A. eds. User Models in Dialog SystemsSpringer-VerlagBerlin74107
    Google Scholar
  11. Czarkowski, M., Kay, J. 2003

    How to give the user a sense of control over the personalization of adaptive hypertext?

    Bra, P.Davis, H.Kay, J. eds. Proceedings of Workshop on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems User Modeling 2003 Session.University of Pittsburgh, JohnstownPA, USA121132
    Google Scholar
  12. Doyle, J. 1979A truth maintenance systemArtificial Intelligence12231171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. EU, T.E.P. and the Council of the European Union, 1995, European Community Directive on Data Protection. http://www.doc.gov/ecommerce/eudir.htm.Google Scholar
  14. Godefroid, P., Herbsleb, J.D., Jagadeesan, L.J. and Li, D. (2000). Ensuring privacy in presence awareness systems: an automated verification approach. In: Proceedings of ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.Google Scholar
  15. Hatala, M. and Wakkary, R.: 2005, User modeling and semantic technologies in support of a tangible interface.User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction: The Journal of Personalization Research (this issue).Google Scholar
  16. Heckmann, D.: 2003a, Integrating privacy aspects into ubiquitous computing: a basic user interface for personalization. In: Proceedings of Artificial Intelligence in Mobile Systems Workshop at UbiComp 2003, Seattle, Washington, USA.Google Scholar
  17. Heckmann, D.: 2003b, A specialised representation for ubiquitous computing and user modeling. In: Proceedings of Workshop on User Modelling for Ubiquitous Computing at User Modelling 2003 (UM’03) . University of Pittsburgh, Johnstown, PA, USA. http://www.di.uniba.it/ubium03/heckmann-2.pdf.Google Scholar
  18. Heckmann, D.: 2004, Ubisworld. http://www.u2m.org/.Google Scholar
  19. Hengartner, U. and Steenkiste, P.: 2003, Protecting access to people location information. In: Proceedings of First International Conference on Security in Pervasive Computing. Boppard, Germany, pp. 25–38.Google Scholar
  20. Hightower, J., Borriello, G. 2001Location systems for ubiquitous computingIEEE Computer345766Google Scholar
  21. Hightower, J., Borriello, G. 2004

    Particle filters for location estimation in ubiquitous computing

    Davies, N.Mynatt, E.Siio, I. eds. Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp 2004)NottinghamEngland88106
    Google Scholar
  22. Huang, X., McCalla, G.I., Greer, J.E., Neufeld, E. 1991Revising deductive knowledge and stereotypical knowledge in a student modelUser Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction: The Journal of Personalization Research187116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Judd, G. and Steenkiste, P.: 2003, Providing contextual information to pervasive computing applications. In: Proccedings of IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing (PERCOM), Dallas, pp. 133–142.Google Scholar
  24. Kass, R. 1991Building a user model implicitly from a cooperative advisory dialogUser Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction: The Journal of Personalization Research1203258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kay, J. 1995The um toolkit for cooperative user modellingUser Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction: The Journal of Personalization Research4149196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kay, J., Kummerfeld, B., Lauder, P. 2002

    Personis: a server for user models

    Bra, P.D.Brusilovsky, P.Conejo, R. eds. Proceedings of AH’2002 Adaptive Hypertext 2002MalagaSpain203212
    Google Scholar
  27. Kay, J., Lum, A., Uther, J. 2003

    How can users edit and control their models in ubiquitous computing environments?

    Cheverst, K.Carolis, N.Kruger, A. eds. UM03 Workshop on User Modeling for Ubiquitous ComputingUniversity of Pittsburgh JohnstownPA USA1216
    Google Scholar
  28. Kidd, C.D., Orr, R., Abowd, G.D., Atkeson, C.G., Essa, I.A., MacIntyre, B., Mynatt, E.D., Starner, T.E. and Newstetter, W.: 1999, The Aware Home: a living laboratory for ubiquitous computing research. In: Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Cooperative Buildings, Integrating Information, Organization, and Architecture, Pittsburgh, USA, pp. 191–198.Google Scholar
  29. Kobsa, A. 2001Generic user modeling systemsUser Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction – Ten Year Anniversary Issue114963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kobsa A. (2001b). Invited keynote: tailoring privacy to user’s needs. In: Proceedings of the User Modeling Conference. Sonthofen, Germany, pp. 303–313.Google Scholar
  31. Kobsa, A. 2002Personalized hypermedia and international privacyCommunications of the ACM456467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kobsa, A., Pohl, W. 1995The user modeling shell system BGP-MSUser Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction: The Journal of Personalization Research459106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kobsa, A., Schreck, J. 2003Privacy through pseudonymity in user-adaptive systemsACM Transactions on Internet Technology3149183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kono, Y., Ikeda, M., Mizoguchi, R. 1994THEMIS: a nonmonotonic inductive student modeling systemInternational Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education5371413Google Scholar
  35. Langheinrich, M. 2001

    Privacy by design – principles of privacy-aware ubiquitous systems

    Abowd, G.D.Brumitt, B.Shafer, S.A. eds. Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp 2001)Atlanta, GeorgiaUSA273291
    Google Scholar
  36. Langheinrich, M.: 2002a, As we may live – real-world implications of ubiquitous computing. http://www.vs.inf.ethz.ch/publ/papers/uc-implications.pdf.Google Scholar
  37. Langheinrich, M. 2002

    A privacy awareness system for ubiquitous computing environments

    Borriello, G.Holmquist, L.E. eds. Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp 2002)GotebergSweden237245
    Google Scholar
  38. Lau, T., Etzioni, O., Weld, D.S. 1999Privacy interfaces for information managementCommunications of the ACM428994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lederer, S., Hong, J.I., Jiang, X., Dey, A.K., Landay, J.A. and Mankoff, J.: 2003, Towards everyday privacy for ubiquitous computing of everyday privacy in ubiquitous computing environments. Technical report ucb-csd-03-1283, Computer Science Division, University of California, Berkley.Google Scholar
  40. Lehmann, O., Bauer, M., Becker, C. and Nicklas, D.: 2004, From home to world - supporting context-aware applications through world models. In: Proceedings of the Second IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (PERCOM’04) . Orlando, Florida, pp. 297–306.Google Scholar
  41. Lin, J., Laddaga, R., Naito, H. 2002

    Personal location agent for communicating entities (PLACE)

    Patern o`, F. eds. Proceedings of Fourth International Symposium on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices (Mobile HCI 2002), Vol. 2411 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science.PisaItaly4559
    Google Scholar
  42. Miller, C. 2000

    Rules of etiquette, or how a mannerly AUI should comport itself to gain social acceptance and be perceived as gracious and well-behaved in polite society

    Rogers, S.Iba, W. eds. Papers from 2000 Adaptive User Interfaces AAAI Spring Symposium, Technical Report SS-00-01StanfordCA8081
    Google Scholar
  43. Myles, G., Friday, A., Davies, N. 2003Preserving privacy in environments with location-based applicationsIEEE Pervasive Computing25664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mynatt, E.D. and Nguyen, D.: 2001, Making Ubiquitous Computing Visible. In: Proceedings of CHI 2001 Workshop on Building the Ubiquitous Computing User Experience. Minneapolis, Minnesota. http://www2.parc.com/csl/ projects/ubicomp-workshop/positionpapers/mynatt.pdf (visited April 2003).Google Scholar
  45. Nielsen, J. 2000Designing Web UsabilityIndianapolis, IndianaUSA: New RidersGoogle Scholar
  46. P3P: 2004, Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P). http://www.w3.org/P3P/ (visited April 2004).Google Scholar
  47. Paiva, A., Self, J. 1995TAGUS – a user and learner modeling workbenchUser Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction: The Journal of Personalization Research4197228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Patterson, D., Liao, L., Gajos, K., Coller, M., Livic, N., Olson, K., Wang, S., Fox, D., Kautz, H. 2004

    Opportunity knocks: a system to provide cognitive assistance with transportation services

    Davies, N.Mynatt, E.Siio, I. eds. Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp 2004)NottinghamEngland433450
    Google Scholar
  49. Petrelli, D. and Not, E.: 2005, User-centred design of flexible hypermedia for a mobile guide: reflections on the HyperAudio Experience. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction: The Journal of Personalization Research (this issue).Google Scholar
  50. Priyantha, N.B., Chakraborty, A. and Balakrishnan, H.: 2000, The Cricket location-support system. In: MobiCom ’00: Proceedings of the 6th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, Boston, Massachusetts, pp.32–43.Google Scholar
  51. Rich, E., Wahlster, W. 1989

    Stereotypes and user modeling

    Kobsa, A. eds. User Models in Dialog SystemsSpringer-VerlagBerlin3551
    Google Scholar
  52. Scott, J. and Hazas, M.: 2003, User-friendly surveying techniques for location-aware systems. In: Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp 2003). Seattle, Washington, USA, pp. 44–53.Google Scholar
  53. Segall, B., Arnold, D., Boot, J., Henderson, M. and Phelps, T.: 2000, Content based routing with Elvin4. In: Proceedings AUUG2K. Canberra, Australia. http://elvin.dstc.edu.au/doc/papers/auug2k/auug2k.pdf.Google Scholar
  54. Uther, J., Kay, J. 2003

    A web-based visualion of large user models

    Brusilovsky, P.Corbett, A.Rosis, F. eds. Proceedings of 9th International Conference on User Modeling (UM 2003)Johnston PAUSA198202
    Google Scholar
  55. Want R., Hopper A., Falco V., Gibbons J. (1992). The active badge location system. ACM Transactions on Information Systems. 10(1)Google Scholar
  56. Zimmermann, A., Sprecht, M. and Lorenz, A.: 2005, Personalisation and context-management. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction: The Journal of Personalization Research. (this issue).Google Scholar
  57. Zipf, G.K. 1949Human Behaviour and the Principle of Least EffortAddison-WesleyCambridge, MA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • David J. Carmichael
    • 1
  • Judy Kay
    • 1
  • Bob Kummerfeld
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Information TechnologiesUniversity of SydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations