International Urology and Nephrology

, Volume 52, Issue 1, pp 169–177 | Cite as

Serum levels of the endothelial glycocalyx constituents and the early failure of forearm autologous arteriovenous fistulas in end-stage renal disease patients: a prospective cohort study

  • Xianglei Kong
  • Jing Du
  • Hong Su
  • Qinlan Chen
  • Lijun Tang
  • Lei Zhang
  • Zunsong Wang
  • Liming LiangEmail author
  • Dongmei XuEmail author
Nephrology - Original Paper



The relationship between the endothelial glycocalyx constituents and the early failure of autologous arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) in ESRD patients is still unknown.


In this prospective cohort study, 181 ESRD patients (the mean age was 53.3 ± 11.8 years, 66.3% of them were males) received forearm AVFs surgery were consecutively enrolled with a median follow-up time of 10 months. The early AVF failure was defined as a fistula that never developed adequately for dialysis use or that failed within the first 3 months of use. The serum levels of glycocalyx constituents including glypicans-1 (GPC-1), syndecans-1 (SDC-1), and hyaluronan (HA), and the indicator of endothelial activation reflected by E-selectin (ES) were determined by ELISAs.


The primary patencies of AVFs were 98.3%, 96.7%, 91.7%, and 89.5% at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. The ROC curve was plotted and demonstrated that HA, not GPC-1, SDC-1 or ES, can diagnose the AVF failure, with the cut-off value of 6.37 ng/ml, the sensitivity of 87.5%, the specificity of 46.9%, and the Youden index of 0.34, respectively. The Kaplan–Meier survival analysis demonstrated that patients with HA < 6.37 ng/mL had better patency of AVFs than patients with HA ≥ 6.37 ng/mL (log-rank test, p = 0.008). In the Cox proportional hazards analysis, after adjusting for confounders, HA (≥ 6.37 ng/mL vs. < 6.37 ng/mL) was associated with the early AVFs failure, with the OR of 5.88 (1.21–28.60).


This study demonstrated that HA can predict the early failure of forearm AVFs, when its serum level is more than 6.37 ng/mL.


Endothelial glycocalyx Autologous arteriovenous fistula Patency Prognosis 





This study was funded by the Clinical Medicine Innovation Program of the Science and Technology Development Programs from the Ji’nan Science and Technology Bureau (201704086), the Projects of Medical and Health Technology Development Program of Shandong Province (2017WS083), the Natural Science Foundation from Shandong Science and Technology Committee (ZR2019MH038), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81970615), the Cultivating Fund of National Natural Science Foundation from Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital (QYPY2019NSFC1008), and the Medical Bid data Alliance of Blood Purification of Shandong Province.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical approval

The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and also under the approval of the Ethics Committee of Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nephrology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan HospitalShandong UniversityJinanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Qilu Medical CollegeShandong UniversityJinanChina
  3. 3.Center of Blood PurificationWeifang People’s HospitalWeifangChina
  4. 4.Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory for Rheumatic Disease and Translational MedicineJinanPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.Department of NephrologyThe First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical UniversityJinanPeople’s Republic of China
  6. 6.Nephrology Research Institute of Shandong ProvinceJinanPeople’s Republic of China

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