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The preoperative pad test as a predictor of urinary incontinence and quality of life after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: a prospective, observational, clinical study

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Abstract

Purpose

To assess whether the preoperative 1-h pad test could predict postoperative urinary incontinence and quality of life after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

Methods

A total of 329 patients who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy between 2013 and 2016 were prospectively enrolled in this study. These patients were divided into the preoperative urinary continence group and the preoperative urinary incontinence group according to the 1-h pad test. The time to achieve urinary continence, lower urinary tract function evaluated by uroflowmetry and post-voided residual urine volume, and quality of life evaluated by King’s Health Questionnaire and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form were compared between these two groups.

Results

There were 190 patients (58%) in the preoperative urinary continence group (1-h pad test ≤ 2 g) and 139 patients (42%) in the preoperative urinary incontinence group (1-h pad test > 2 g). In the preoperative urinary continence/incontinence groups, 83%/76% of patients achieved continence within 12 months, respectively, and urinary incontinence remained significantly longer in the preoperative incontinence group than in the preoperative continence group (P  = 0.042). Although there were no significant differences in all quality of life items between the two groups before surgery, several items were significantly higher in the preoperative urinary continence group.

Conclusion

Achievement of urinary continence and improvement of urinary quality of life are delayed in patients with preoperative urinary incontinence assessed by the 1-h pad test. The preoperative 1-h pad test could be a useful predictor of prolonged urinary incontinence and poor quality of life after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank everyone involved in this paper.

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Correspondence to Yoshimasa Kurimura.

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Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Kurimura, Y., Haga, N., Yanagida, T. et al. The preoperative pad test as a predictor of urinary incontinence and quality of life after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: a prospective, observational, clinical study. Int Urol Nephrol 52, 67–76 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11255-019-02301-3

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Keywords

  • Continence
  • King’s Health Questionnaire
  • Quality of life
  • Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy
  • Urinary incontinence