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International Urology and Nephrology

, Volume 51, Issue 4, pp 561–569 | Cite as

Regional trends in average years of potential life lost (AYPLL) secondary to prostate cancer deaths among Caucasians and African Americans treated by surgery or radiation

  • Mohamed H. KamelEmail author
  • Milan Bimali
  • Mahmoud I. Khalil
  • Ehab Eltahawy
  • LJoseph Su
  • Nabil K. Bissada
  • Rodney Davis
Urology - Original Paper

Abstract

Purpose

To study regional trends in average years of potential life lost (AYPLL) among Caucasians (CA) and African Americans (AA) with prostate cancer (Pca) who received radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy among four different regions in the US as well as across different tumor grades. Years of potential life lost is defined as the difference between a predetermined end-point age and the age at death for a death that occurred prior to that end age, hence the AYPLL is calculated by dividing the total YPLL by the total number of patients died.

Methods

The surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER) database was used to identify Pca patients who were CA or AA and who have received radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy. Study duration was divided into four decades; 1973–1982 (D1), 1983–1992 (D2), 1993–2002 (D3), 2003–2012 (D4). Examined regions were; North East (NE), North central (NC), South and West. Tumor grade was classified into; well/moderately differentiated (WD/MD) and poorly/undifferentiated (PD/UD) groups. Differences in AYPLL among CA and AA in each of these variables were compared.

Results

Overall, compared to CA, AA were diagnosed and died earlier from Pca. AA had higher AYPLL to Pca than CA. In both tumor grade groups, progressive increase in AYPLL among AA compared to CA was noted over the last three decades. In the WD/MD group, except for the South region, the highest recorded difference in AYPLL between AA and CA was in D4. In the PD/UD group, a similar difference in AYPLL between AA and CA was noted in all regions. The difference in AYPLL was higher in the PD/UD group than the WD/MD group.

Conclusions

Racial disparity between AA and CA existed across the examined regions. It is more pronounced in advanced tumor grades. The differences were more significant in the last decade.

Keywords

Prostate cancer Race Years of life lost Regional Racial disparity 

Abbreviations

AA

African Americans

AYPLL

Average years of potential life lost

CA

Caucasians

GS

Gleason score

MD

Moderately differentiated tumor

NC

North Central

NE

North East

Pca

Prostate cancer

PD

Poorly differentiated tumor

PSA

Prostate-specific antigen

UD

Undifferentiated tumor

WD

Well-differentiated tumor

YPLL

Years of potential life lost

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11255_2019_2116_MOESM1_ESM.docx (72 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 71 KB)
11255_2019_2116_MOESM2_ESM.docx (20 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 19 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiostatisticsUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA
  3. 3.Department of EpidemiologyUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA
  4. 4.Department of UrologyBaylor School of Medicine and Michael E. De Bakey VA Medical centerHoustonUSA
  5. 5.Department of UrologyAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt

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